Ver. 1. Goodness. Entertain just sentiments of the Deity, and avoid all duplicity. This truth is placed in the strongest light in the five first chapters, or preface.
THE BOOK OF WISDOM.
This book is so called, because it treats of the excellence of Wisdom, the means to obtain it, and the happy fruits it produces. It is written in the person of Solomon, and contains his sentiments. But is is uncertain who was the writer. It abounds with instructions and exhortations to kings and magistrates to administer justice in the commonwealth, teaching all kinds of virtues under the general names of justice and wisdom. It contains also many prophecies of Christ's coming, passion, resurrection, and other Christian mysteries. The whole may be divided into three parts: In the six first chapters, the author admonishes all superiors to love and exercise justice and wisdom. In the next three, he teacheth that wisdom proceedeth only from God, and is procured by prayer, and a good life. In the other ten chapters, he sheweth the excellent effects, and utility of wisdom and justice. Ch.
--- Their authority is surely greater than that of the Jews, (C.) whom Prot. choose to follow. H.
--- Before they attack us, they must, however, answer this prescription. C.
--- S. Iræn. Clem. Alex. Origen, S. Athan. &c. attribute this book to Solomon; and, though S. Jerom and S. Aug. call this in question, they maintain its divine authority. Sometimes the Fathers abstain from urging it against the Jews, because they reject it, for the same reason as our Saviour proved the immortality of the soul, against the Sadducees, from the books of Moses alone, though other texts might have been adduced. The Councils of Carthage, 419, Florence, Trent, &c. declare this book canonical, (W.) agreeably to the ancient Fathers. S. Aug. Præd. xiv. and de Civ. Dei. xvii. 20. &c.
--- Philo (S. Jer.) the elder, (W. M.) one of the Sept. (Geneb.) might compile this work from the sentences of Solomon, preserved by tradition, as Sirach's son did that of Ecclesiasticus; (W.) or it is styled "Solomon's Wisdom," (Sept. H.) on account of its resembling his works, in like manner as the Second of Kings is called Samuel's, though he wrote none of that book. W.
--- Sixtus (Bib. viii. hær. ix.) and others, maintain, that this was written originally in Heb. and some think by Solomon; being translated by the Sept. But these go too far. C.
--- The nine first chapters seem, however, to be the production of Solomon, though the latter may have been added by the Greek translator, (Houbigant) who must, therefore, have been divinely inspired. H.
--- The sentiments are very grand, (C.) and contain a prediction of the sufferings of the just one, whence we may infer, that the name of the author was originally in the title, like that of all other prophets. The arguments which Calmet adduces, to prove that Solomon was not the author of the first part of this work, may easily be refuted. In the New Testament, that part is frequently quoted, whence we may gather, that it was allowed to be the work of Solomon. Houbig. præf. p. 176.
--- Some style this work Panaretos, as being an exhortation to all virtues. C.
--- All the five sapiential books (Prov. &c.) are cited under the title of Wisdom in the mass-book. Superiors are here admonished to act with justice, and taught that wisdom is to be obtained by prayer, and by a good life. C. ix. Its effect and utility (W.) form the subject of the latter part. See Apocrypha, vol. i. p. 597. H.
Ver. 3. Unwise. He shews that their wisdom is all folly, and that they cannot withstand his power. C.
--- There are mortal sins of thought. W.
Ver. 4. Subject. Or "enslaved to sin." H.
--- Soul and body are intimately connected, so that the actions of one defile the other, and banish wisdom.
Ver. 5. Discipline. The instructive light of the Holy Ghost.
--- Understanding. Those who deny God or Providence, (C.) and lead a wicked life, are abandoned. H.
--- Not abide. Elegcqhsetai: "He shall be connected or manifested," shewing that he will not acquit the guilty, v. 6. M.
--- When Solomon fell, his wisdom ceased. Iniquity soon betrays itself. C.
Ver. 7. That. S. Aug. reads hic, "this who," more correctly than hoc, as it refers to the spirit, (C.) which having made and filled all things, must be perfectly acquainted with every action. H.
Ver. 10. Jealousy. God is strong and jealous. Ex. xx. C.
--- He examines the smallest deviation from the paths of rectitude. H.
Ver. 12. Seek not with such eagerness (zelare) your own ruin, (C.) by an evil life, (W.) or rather thrown not the blame on death, as if you were necessitated to sin. God created man to be immortal.
Ver. 14. Health. Good. Gen. i. 31. C.
--- Poison, or medicine, (W.) medicamentum. W.
--- Poison and wild beasts become noxious to man only after sin. It is this which infects the veins. All may derive an antidote from Jesus Christ.
Ver. 16. It. Sept. auton.
--- Death. The wicked strive M. to draw upon themselves the second death (C.) as they will not repent. W. Is. xxviii. 15. H.