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OF understanding, for Ethan the Ezrahite.

PSALM LXXXVIII.  (MISERICORDIAS DOMINI.)

The perpetuity of the Church of Christ, in consequence of the promises of God: which notwithstanding, God permits her to suffer sometimes most grievous afflictions.


Ver. 1.  Ezrahite.  Sept. &c. "Israelite," as in the former psalm.  The Jews think that Ethan or Eman lived during the Egyptian bondage.  But this psalm was rather composed by one of the captives at Babylon who bewails the destruction of the kingdom of Juda, under Sedecias.  After he had detailed the promises of God, (v. 39.  C.) David might write it in the person (H.) of Ethan, or Idithun.  1 Par. xxv. and 3 Kings. iv. 31.  W.

 

--- Most of the Fathers explain it of Christ's kingdom.  See Ps. cxxxi. 11.  Jer. xxxiii. 17.  C.

 

--- The sceptre or administration of affairs was to continue in the tribe of Juda till his coming, as it really did, though kings were not always at the head of the people.  Bert.


2 The mercies of the Lord I will sing for ever. I will shew forth thy truth with my mouth to generation and generation.

Ver. 2.  The.  Sept. and Houbig. "Thy mercies, Lord."

 

--- Truth.  Notwithstanding our distress, I know thou wilt perform thy promises.  C.


3 For thou hast said: Mercy shall be built up for ever in the heavens: thy truth shall be prepared in them.

Ver. 3.  For thou.  Heb. "I."  Yet S. Jerom agrees with the Sept. (Bert.) though he is quoted by Calmet as conformable with Aquila, &c. Dixi.

 

--- Heaven and earth shall pass away sooner than God's word.  H.

 

--- If we do not see how his promises are accompanied we must confess our ignorance, or throw the blame on the sins of the nation: but never call in question the divine mercy.  C.

 

--- Truth.  I will perform what I have promised to thee.  M.

 

--- The apostles, represented by the heavens, have, by their preaching, established by the Church for ever.  W.

 

--- In them, is not in the Sept. S. Aug. &c.  C.

 

--- Houbigant would remove Dixisti, "for thou," &c. to v. 4.  H.


4 I have made a covenant with my elect: I have sworn to David my servant:

Ver. 4.  Elect.  Abraham, and the whole body of the people to whom the Messias had been promised.  David was assured that he should spring from his family, v. 52.  C.



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5 Thy seed will I settle for ever. And I will build up thy throne unto generation and generation.

Ver. 5.  Generation.  David's posterity occupied the throne for a long time, (H.) and subsisted till the coming of Christ; so that if any conqueror of that family had then appeared, the Jews would not have hesitated to admit, that this prediction was fulfilled.  It is there misfortune to understand the text in this sense, whereas God spoke of the spiritual kingdom of his Son, which is to be perpetual.  They can never answer the argument which the Fathers urged in the 4th century, and which has attained fresh strength from the longer duration of misery under which the royal family of David has been depressed.  It is plain, that it has enjoyed no power from many ages, and as God's word is invariable, He could not have promised an everlasting earthly dominion.  Bert.

 

--- The temporal kingdom of David decayed at the captivity, and is now wholly destroyed.  But Christ was of this family, and established the Church, his spiritual kingdom, which shall continue unto the end.  W.

 

--- His ministers exercise a power, which is founded on truth and justice.  See 2 K. vii. 9.  C.


6 The heavens shall confess thy wonders, O Lord: and thy truth in the church of the saints.

Ver. 6.  Saints.  These alone, (H.) the heavens or angels, worthily proclaim thy praises.  H.

 

--- Preachers announce the same in the Church, (S. Aug.) "the communion of saints," as none are found out of her society.  H.


7 For who in the clouds can be compared to the Lord: or who among the sons of God shall be like to God?

Ver. 7.  Sons.  Angels (C.) to God the Son.  None is like him.  S. Jer.

 

--- Lucifer fell by aiming at it.  I will be like to the Most High.  Is. xiv. 14.


8 God, who is glorified in the assembly of the saints: great and terrible above all them that are about him.

Ver. 8.  About.  God eclipses every created beauty.  H.

 

--- The angels themselves tremble before him.  C.


9 O Lord God of hosts, who is like to thee? thou art mighty, O Lord, and thy truth is round about thee.

Ver. 9.  Truth.  He often praises this attribute, as if to excuse himself for asking, why God had debased the throne of David?  C.

 

--- God cannot be divested of this perfection.  D.


10 Thou rulest the power of the sea: and appeasest the motion of the waves thereof.

Ver. 10.  Power.  Heb. "pride."  Thou canst raise a storm, or restore a calm.  C.


11 Thou hast humbled the proud one, as one that is slain: with the arm of thy strength thou hast scattered thy enemies.

Ver. 11.  Proud one.  Heb. Rahab, Egypt or Pharao, Ps. lxxxvi. 4.  Is. li. 9.  C.  He alludes to the plagues inflicted on the Egyptians, &c.  W.


12 Thine are the heavens, and thine is the earth: the world and the fulness thereof thou hast founded:

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13 the north and the sea thou hast created. Thabor and Hermon shall rejoice in thy name:

Ver. 13.  Sea.  Heb. "the right," (C). which here denotes the south, (Ps. cvi. 3.  M.) as Hermon may do the east, (D.) with reference to Thabor, which lies to the west, though this seems unusual.  C.  Bert.

 

--- The north, &c. more probably refers to the limits of the promised land, from Libanus to the Indian or Mediterranean sea; and from Hermon, on the north-eastern part, to Thabor, on the west.  H.

 

--- These two mountains were particularly fertile, and seemed to rejoice.  Bert.

 

--- They "shall praise thy name," eufhmhsousi.  Sym.  H.




14 thy arm is with might. Let thy hand be strengthened, and thy right hand exalted:

Ver. 14.  Might.  Others can make no resistance with all their armies.


15 justice and judgment are the preparation of thy throne. Mercy and truth shall go before thy face:

Ver. 15.  Preparation.  Heb. "basis."

 

--- Face.  Like guards.  M.

 

--- He extols the mercy, and still more the fidelity of God.  C.

 

--- Whether he punished, or reward, all tends to promote his glory, and is perfectly just.  W.


16 blessed is the people that knoweth jubilation. They shall walk, O Lord, in the light of thy countenance:

Ver. 16.  Jubilation.  Heb. "how to sound the trumpet," which was the office of priests.  They marched near the ark, as it were under the eyes of God.  C.

 

--- Those who consider, and adore the ways of Providence, are blessed, (W.) and secure.  M.


17 and in thy name they shall rejoice all the day, and in thy justice they shall be exalted. 18 For thou art the glory of their strength: and in thy good pleasure shall our horn be exalted.

Ver. 18.  Horn.  Power and kingdom.  W.

 

--- He speaks like a virtuous Levite, who acknowledges that all good came from the Lord.  H.

 

--- He cannot speak of temporal blessings alone.  Bert.


19 For our protection is of the Lord, and of our king the holy one of Israel.

Ver. 19.  Israel.  The Lord our king, (1 K. viii. 7.) will protect us, (H.) or He will defend our King David, and his posterity, as he then promised to him, v. 5. 20.  These verses may be thus connected, as the psalmist had been led to praise the wonderful works of God, and now returns to his promises.  Bert.


20 Then thou spokest in a vision to thy saints, and saidst: I have laid help upon one that is mighty, and have exalted one chosen out of my people.

Ver. 20.  Then, may relate to a distant time, when God chose Israel.  M.

 

--- Saints.  Heb. "merciful ones."  Samuel, or Nathan, Sept. Arab. &c. have "sons."  The rest read "saints."  S. Jer.

 

--- People.  As Moses had written.  Deut. xvii. 15.  C.

 

--- This regards David, as a figure of the Messias, (Lu. i. 32.  Ezec. xxxiv. 23.  Bert.) in whom it was more fully verified, 2 K. v.  Acts xiii. 22.  W.


21 I have found David my servant: with my holy oil I have anointed him.

Ver. 21.  Oil.  Sept. Vat. has, "mercy," and is followed by S. Jerom in Ezec. lv. 3.  C.

 

--- But is a mistake, eleei being put for elaiw.  Bert.



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22 For my hand shall help him: and my arm shall strengthen him. 23 The enemy shall have no advantage over him: nor the son of iniquity have power to hurt him.

Ver. 23.  Him.  The Jews contributed to the glory of Christ, and the redemption of mankind.  The enemies of David fell before his feet.  C.


24 And I will cut down his enemies before his face; and them that hate him I will put to flight.
25 And my truth and my mercy shall be with him: and in my name shall his horn be exalted. 26 And I will set his hand in the sea; and his right hand in the rivers.

Ver. 26.  Rivers.  Of his kingdom there shall be no end.  Lu. i. 33.  Zac. ix. 10.  H.

 

--- Every nation shall adore him.  David extended his conquests over all Arabia, and from the Pelusium to the Euphrates.  C.

 

--- In this sense, the text may be applied to him, though it belongs more to Christ.  M.


27 He shall cry out to me: Thou art my father: my God, and the support of my salvation.

Ver. 27.  Father.  We never find that David used this title; (D.) but Christ did frequently, insomuch that the Jews were convinced, that he claimed the divine nature: though, as man, he called God his support.  Bert.  Is. lxiii. 16.


28 And I will make him my firstborn, high above the kings of the earth.

Ver. 28.  First-born.  Or favourite.  Ex. iv. 22. and Jer. xxxi. 9.  What king could be preferred to David for piety, riches, &c.?  Yet he was only a feeble type of our Saviour, who surpasses all kings, as much as the reality does a shadow.  C.  Col. i. 15.  Rom. viii. 29.  Apoc. i. 5.  Bert.

 

--- High.  Heb. helyon, which is one of the titles of God, and belongs to Christ, (H.) who is King of kings, and heir of all.  Heb. i.  M.


29 I will keep my mercy for him for ever: and my covenant faithful to him. 30 And I will make his seed to endure for evermore: and his throne as the days of heaven.

Ver. 30.  Heaven.  This can only be verified in Christ, who rules over all, and gives power to his Church unto the end.  The family of David has been confounded with the rest of the nation for nearly 2,000 years.  C.

 

--- The temporal dominion of those princes has ceased in Jechonias, (D.) like that of other monarchs; so that God had in view a different throne, (Bert.  v. 5.) and the Messias, who would render the kingdom of David perpetual, (M.) in a spiritual sense.  H.


31 And if his children forsake my law, and walk not in my judgments:

Ver. 31.  And if.  God foresaw the prevarications of the Israelites and Christians: But he speaks this to shew their free-will, and that he would treat them as children, (Bert.) and not with the utmost severity, (C.) unless they proved obstinate.  2 K. vii. 14.  H.

 

--- Some shall always continue faithful, and shall be glorified, while the bad shall be cast away.  S. Aug.

 

--- Christ will never lose his Church.  W.


32 If they profane my justices: and keep not my commandments: 33 I will visit their iniquities with a rod: and their sins with stripes. 34 But my mercy I will not take away from him: nor will I suffer my truth to fail.

Ver. 34.  From him.  David.  Many ancient psalters read, "from them."  C.

 

--- God, by degrees, punished the Jews, by depriving them of their kings; though the family of David was preserved, and some share of power remained till Christ's coming.  Bert.


35 Neither will I profane my covenant: and the words that proceed from my mouth I will not make void. 36 Once have I sworn by my holiness: I will not lie unto David:

Ver. 36.  Holiness. Or by myself , having nothing greater.  Heb. vi. 13.  C.

 

--- I will not.  Lit. "if I lie," which is a Heb. idiom, (Bert.) implying as much. W.

 

--- I have sworn irrecoverably, once for all.  M.


37 his seed shall endure for ever.

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38 And his throne as the sun before me: and as the moon perfect for ever, and a faithful witness in heaven.

Ver. 38.  Witness.  Which may refer to the throne, or to the sun, (C.) or to the rainbow.  Bert.  D.

 

--- As long as the stars subsist, so long shall his throne be established.  C. 

 

--- The Church shines like the sun, and is easily known.  Bert.

 

--- God, (Euseb.) or Christ, attests the promises.  S. Jer.  Is. lv. 4.  Apoc. i. 5.

 

--- The rainbow was assigned as a memorial, that the world should no more be drowned.  Gen. ix.  The other covenants made God  have no less stability.  H.

 

--- Christian souls may shine in virtue, like the sun, or full moon, (W.) particularly (H.) after the resurrection, when they will be perfect, and not liable to change.  S. Aug.


39 But thou hast rejected and despised: thou hast been angry with thy anointed.

Ver. 39.  Rejected.  In all kingdoms, there are some interruptions, and God did not fail in his promises.  He still maintained the sceptre in Juda, though not with the same splendour at all times.  Bert.

 

--- Angry.  Or Lit. "hast deferred."  Distulisti.  H.

 

--- The Israelites ardently wished for the coming of the Messias.  The psalmist here contrasts the present forlorn condition of the people with the preceding promises; and bewails the fate of Sedecias, who was slain at a distance from home.  Distulisti.  See Ps. lxxvii. 21. and lxii.  C.

 

--- Thou hast been angry with thy Christ, (king Sedecias) and even with our Redeemer, in some sense, (C.) as He was treated thus, in consequence of the sins of mankind.  Euseb. &c.

 

--- The promises were not fulfilled in David, that we may look farther.  Solomon seemed to answer all his expectations.  But he fell, and God had not him but Christ in view.  The kingdom and sacrifices of the Jews are no more.  Christ was not taken from them, but deferred.  Some Jews and many Gentiles believed in him, v. 47. &c.  S. Aug.  W.

 

--- Anointed.  Thou hast despised us, and delayed the coming of the Messias.  We cannot accuse the psalmist of impatience, as a late commentator has done, his words being dictated by the Holy Ghost.  He expostulates with love and confidence, (Bert.) and comforts himself with the thought, that the coming of the Messias is only delayed.  W.


40 Thou hast overthrown the covenant of thy servant: thou hast profaned his sanctuary on the earth.

Ver. 40.  Overthrown the covenant, &c.  All this seems to relate to the time of the captivity of Babylon, in which, for the sins of the people and their princes, God seemed to have set aside for a while the covenant he made with David.  Ch.

 

--- Yet he did not in effect, v. 39.  H.

 

--- Sanctuary.  The temple, (Theod.) or according to the Heb. "the diadem," by which the king was "set apart" from the common people, and rendered sacred.  Ps. cxxxi. 18.  Bert.

 

--- The psalmist speaks in the person of the weak, who complained, (W.) that the kingdom ws a prey to invaders, and the Church oppressed by infidels.  W.  T.




41 Thou hast broken down all his hedges: thou hast made his strength fear.

Ver. 41.  Fear.  All this forts can afford no refuge.  The country is like an abandoned vineyard.  The Assyrians and Chaldees have ruined it, and the neighbouring nations of Samaria and Edom take possession of it.  C.

 

--- Thou leadest on their armies, and renderest our efforts useless.  M.

 

--- This conduct of God proceeded from mercy.  This severe chastisement awakened his people, who after the captivity were more tractable.  Chal.  Bert.  C.


42 All that pass by the way have robbed him: he is become a reproach to his neighbours. 43 Thou hast set up the right hand of them that oppress him: thou hast made all his enemies to rejoice. 44 Thou hast turned away the help of his sword; and hast not assisted him in battle. 45 Thou hast made his purification to cease: and thou hast cast his throne down to the ground.

Ver. 45.  Cease.  The priests are absent; and he cannot be purified in the temple.

 

--- Purification may here denote the royal ornaments.  Pagn.  C.   M.


46 Thou hast shortened the days of his time: thou hast covered him with confusion.

Ver. 46.  Time.  Heb. &c. "youth."  S. Jer.  H.

 

--- Joachim was only seventeen years old when he came to the throne, which he occupied  three months.  Amama.

 

--- The four last kings of Juda reigned but a short while, and most of them came to an untimely end.  Instead of cronou, the Rom. Sept. S. Aug. &c. read qronou, "of his throne," or reign.  C.

 

--- The Vulg. seems more natural, as the throne of David had subsisted above 400 years, so that it was not overturned in "its youth," or commencement, though the number of ages, promised to it, seemed now to be abridged.  Bert.


47 How long, O Lord, turnest thou away unto the end? shall thy anger burn like fire?

Ver. 47.  How long.  Here the third part, or the prayer of the psalmist, begins.  C.

 

--- Away.  Another interrogation might then commence, "shall it be unto the end?"  H.

 

--- In this prayer he foretells that God will regard our weakness, and preserve his Church.  W.


48 Remember what my substance is for hast thou made all the children of men in vain?

Ver. 48.  Remember what.  Heb. ani, "I."  As this seems odd, Houbigant substitutes, adni, "Lord."  Bert.

 

--- Substance is.  That Christ will assume our nature, (S. Aug. de Civ. Dei. xvii. 9. 11.) or "how long I shall live."  Mont.

 

--- Even the world "passes" like a shadow.  1 Cor. vii.  Amama.

 

--- "Be mindful of me from the depth: else why hast thou in vain created the sons of men?"  S. Jer.  H.

 

--- In vain.  To spend their days in misery? or rather, "are not all created subject to vanity?"  If thou do not succour us, we shall presently perish, and who will glorify thy name on earth?  Ps. cxliii. 4.  C.

 

--- Will thy providence take no care of us?  Bert.

 

--- If the Messias come not, we cannot be saved, and we shall appear to have been created in vain.  M.


49 Who is the man that shall live, and not see death: that shall deliver his soul from the hand of hell? 50 Lord, where are thy ancient mercies, according to what thou didst swear to David in thy truth?

Ver. 50.  David.  He was a man according to thy own heart, and thy promises to him were absolute.  Ethan speaks not of the other kings, or of the people, who might have justly irritated the Lord.  He excuses their failings, by the consideration or their mortal and frail nature, v. 49.  C.



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51 Be mindful, O Lord, of the reproach of thy servants (which I have held in my bosom) of many nations:

Ver. 51.  Nations.  Who continually insult us, and blaspheme thy name.  H.

 

--- This fills me with the most poignant grief.  C.

 

--- Which, &c.  Aquila and S. Jer. "For I have carried in  my bosom all the iniquities of peoples."  If we should read kul, "voice," for col, "all," which seems useless before rabim, "many," (H.) we might translate, "I bore in my bosom the discourse of many peoples."  C.


52 Wherewith thy enemies have reproached, O Lord; wherewith they have reproached the change of thy anointed.

Ver. 52.  Wherewith.  Or "because," quod.  H.

 

--- Change.  Heb. also, "the supplanting or retardment."  Why does not your Messias come?  How are your kings fallen! though God had promised them an eternal kingdom!  Boast no more of his power or veracity.  This impious language disturbs me.  C.

 

--- They deride the ignominious life of the Messias.  Euseb.

 

--- Sedecias had "exchanged" the promised crown for irons, which was a cutting reproach.  Bert.

 

--- Christ appeared to have left his people.  W.

 

--- Infidels objected, that David's piety was ill requited by God, and that the anointed had made a bad exchange; antallagma.  Matt. xvi. 26.  M.


53 Blessed be the Lord for evermore. So be it. So be it.

Ver. 53.  So be it.  Some suppose, that these words were added by the collector of the psalms into five books.  C.

 

--- Here the third ends.  H.

 

--- The psalmist loses not hope, under adversity.  Bert.

 

--- He begins and finishes with God's praises.  C.

 

--- We beg that all may praise thee, O Lord.  W.

 

--- This is the only reply which he makes to the sarcasms of infidels, being convinced of God's providence.  C.


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