Ver. 1. Title. This psalm is a sequel to the former, (W.) and refers to the malevolent speeches of Saul's courtiers, (1 K. xxiv. 10. and xxvi. 7. C.) and to the proceedings of the Jews against Christ. S. Jer.
--- It is an invective against hypocrites, (C.) and detractors. Bert.
PSALM LVII. (SI VERE UTIQUE.)
David reproveth the wicked, and foretelleth their punishment.
Ver. 2. Men. If you be consulted by Saul, and act as judges, do what is right. Condemn not a man unheard. C.
--- Frew refuse to speak well. W.
--- Heb. also, "O assembly," act not hypocritically.
Ver. 3. Heart. Hence proceed evil thoughts, &c. H.
--- Quicquid vis & non potes, factum Deus computat. S. Aug.
--- Forge, as you endeavour to preserve the appearance of rectitude. Heb. "weigh" in scales. C.
--- This double-dealing aggravates the fault. W.
Ver. 4. Womb. Born in sin. H.
--- They have followed the same course through life, being always bent on wickedness. C.
Ver. 5. Madness; or "poison," chamath. M.
--- Deaf asp. This is the most dangerous species. The ancients attempted to charm serpents. But these courtiers were deaf to every proof of David's innocence, (C. Diss.) and would receive no admonition, stopping their ears, like asps. W.
--- The prophet speaks conformably to the received opinion, (Bert.) without determining it to be true. M.
Ver. 6. Wisely. "Cunningly." Many read, qui incantatur a sapiente. C.
--- He does not approve of the magical art. M.
--- Serpents may naturally be effected with music. The torpid snake by incantation bursts. Virg. Ec. viii. Bochart v. 3. 385. Parkhurst, chober. H.
Ver. 9. Wax. Heb. shabbelul, occurs no where else, and this signification is surely preferable to that of the Rabbins, "a snail." Prot. H.
--- Fire. Heb. "like the untimely birth of a woman, which has not seen the sun." Houbig. after S. Jerom.
--- Sept. may not have read th at the end of esh, "fire." But both version imply, that the wicked shall perish, without resource (Bert.) or struggle. This in enforced by a multiplicity of examples. H.
Ver. 10. Before your thorns, &c. That is, before your thorns grow up, so as to become strong briers, they shall be overtaken and consumed by divine justice, swallowing them up, as it were, alive in his wrath. Ch.
--- You shall be cut off when you least think of it. M. Ps. liv. 24. H.
--- David probably alludes to the proposal mentioned, (Jud. ix. 14.) where the brier (rhammus) invites all the trees to come under its shade. Before you, my followers, shall fall under the oppression of our cruel persecutors, they shall be suddenly destroyed. Bert.
--- "Before your pots can feel the thorns, he shall take them away, as with a whirlwind, both living, and in his wrath." Prot.
--- This version of Pagnin is rejected by Montanus, who nearly follows the Vulg. Sirothecem means, "your thorns, or pots." Eccles. vii. 7. H.
Ver. 11. Shall wash his hands, &c. Shall applaud the justice of God, and take occasion, from the consideration of the punishment of the wicked, to wash and cleanse his hands from sin. Ch.
--- Hands. Heb. "feet," (though this is not certain. Ps. lxxiii. 4. Bert.) and all his body; the carnage shall be so great. The just approve of God's judgments, (C.) in or "over," epi, to testify that he has no connexion with the wicked. Theod.
--- The just will purify himself still more at the sight of vengeance. This interpretation is good, but no so literal. Bert.
Ver. 12. A God. Heb. Elohim shophetim. Both are in the plural, which has induced many to suppose that angels, &c. are meant; yet the plural is sometimes used, when speaking of the true God. Gen. xx. 13. Jos. xxiv. 19. C.
--- Houbigant translates, "gods," which he explains of the pastors of the Church, or "judges." The reward of virtue, and punishment of vice, are very important truths. Let us wait till the time of harvest, and all will be in its proper place. Bert.