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UNTO the end, for the servant of God, David himself.

Ver. 1.  Himself.  Psalm is understood.  It is expressed in S. Amb. and S. Jerom, (C.) and is the Alex. Sept.  H.


--- Eusebius improperly assigns the cause of the omission to the piece being of a moral nature.  Many suppose it refers to Saul, who had promised that he would give ear no more to the detractors of David, when the latter restored to him his spear and cup.  1 K. xxvi.  Theod. &c.


--- But it seems rather to express the sentiments of the captives at Babylon, like the Psalms x. xi. xiii. and lii.  C.


--- David gloried in the title of servant of the Lord, though he bore the sceptre.  Ps. xvii.  Bert.  Ps. cxv. 16.  M.


--- He applies this instruction to himself, and to all in the lowest stations.  W.


The malice of sinners, and the goodness of God.

2 The unjust hath said within himself, that he would sin: there is no fear of God before his eyes.

Ver. 2.  Himself.  Heb. libbi, "in my heart."  But this is visibly incorrect, and we should substitute lobu, as S. Jer. Chal. Syr. &c. have done.  C.


--- Yet Sym. translates, "concerning the disorder of the impious within, my heart has said, there," &c.  Heb. may also signify, "the transgression of the wicked saith within my heart."  Prot.  H.


--- I am inwardly convinced how great the malice of the wicked may be.  It touches me to the very heart.  Both senses are good.  The wicked are bent on evil, and this fills the virtuous with grief.  Bert.


--- Eyes.  They sin publicly, (Ps. xiii. 1.  C.) and on purpose, preferring vice before virtue, (W.) and constantly bent on doing evil, so that they become odious to all.  M.


3 For in his sight he hath done deceitfully, that his iniquity may be found unto hatred.

Ver. 3.  Unto hatred.  That is, hateful to God (Ch.) and man; (H.) or that he may be able to hurt, as Hebrew also may insinuate.  Bert.


--- Sept. "to find and hate his iniquity."  But he acts not with sincerity.  He wishes to defend his evil ways.  S. Aug. &c.


--- He still flatters himself with impunity.  Ps. ix. 25. or x. 11. To find, often means to punish.  Gen. xliv. 16. &c.  C.


--- God frequently abandons those who sin through malice.  W.


4 The words of his mouth are iniquity and guile: he would not understand that he might do well.

Ver. 4.  Well, to those in distress.  Ps. xl. 2.  Though wise enough in worldly concerns, he seemed quite ignorant when any virtuous actions were proposed.  C.


--- Sometimes ignorance is excusable when a person does his best to obtain knowledge.  But when he is negligent, the ignorance is gross, and sinful in proportion to the  importance of the thing.  If one desire to be ignorant to prevent remorse, this only increases the guilt, and God often leaves such destitute of the ordinary graces which he gives to others; so that they fall into a reprobate sense, and into more horrible sins.  W.

5 He hath devised iniquity on his bed, he hath set himself on every way that is not good: but evil he hath not hated.

Ver. 5.  Set  himself, "persevering" in wickedness.  S. Aug.

6 O Lord, thy mercy is in heaven, and thy truth reacheth, even to the clouds.

Ver. 6.  Clouds.  The mercy of God is great, and his fidelity indisputable.  Some think these were concealed till the coming of the Messias; (Ps. lxxxiv. 11.  S. Bern.) and many of the Fathers accuse Aristotle of confining Providence to the regions above the moon, by perverting this text.  S. Clem. strom. 5. &c.


--- But Gesner has produced 30 passages from that author which prove both a general and particular Providence.  C.


--- God does not leave the most wilful sinner without some good motions, and sufficient grace, that they may repent if they do not harden their own hearts.  He has promised such helps, and is most faithful and desirous to receive again the penitent sinner.  W.

7 Thy justice is as the mountains of God, thy judgments are a great deep. Men and beasts thou wilt preserve, O Lord:

Ver. 7.  Of God.  A title which is often given to things of superior excellence.  So divine condimenta of Plautus, (Pseudol.) denote ragouts or sauces of the best quality; (H.) and sacra fames of Virgil, means great hunger.  See Jon. iii. 3.  Cant. viii. 6.


--- Deep.  After praising the mercy of God, the psalmist expresses his admiration of his inscrutable justice.  Rom. xi. 33.  C.


--- Preserve, salvabis.  The latter are designed only for man's benefit, and will end with time.  H.


--- But man is destined for eternal happiness, v. 9.  C.


--- God wishes the salvation of both the learned and of the stupid, (S. Jer.  W.) of the Jew and Gentile, (Arnob.  1 Tim. iv. 10.) of good and bad.  He makes his sun to shine on both.  Mat. v. 45.  Euseb.  Piscat.  C.

8 O how hast thou multiplied thy mercy, O God! But the children of men shall put their trust under the covert of thy wings.

Ver. 8.  O how.  So the Heb. and Sept. read; quemadmodum may also (Bert.) signify "as."  God has given such proofs of his great mercies to all.  H.


--- Of men.  People must lay aside their stupidity and resemblance with brutes, to obtain the eternal joys which are prepared for men.  W.

9 They shall be inebriated with the plenty of thy house; and thou shalt make them drink of the torrent of thy pleasure.

Ver. 9.  House.  In the temple, (C.) or in the Church of God.  S. Amb.


--- The pleasures enjoyed by this communion of saints, (H.) is but a foretaste of what may be expected in heaven.  C.

10 For with thee is the fountain of life; and in thy light we shall see light.

Ver. 10.  With thee, Lord, is the fountain of life, Jesus Christ.


--- See light, of the Holy Ghost.  S. Amb.  Theod.


--- We shall see thee, Father of light, in thy Son.  Orig.  Prin. i. 1.  C.


--- The saints behold in the light of God all that they can desire to know; and of course they will not be unacquainted with our wants and petitions, though they have not the asses' ears of Calvin.  H.


--- Light and life denote all happiness.  C.


--- The psalmist might have a sublime idea of these pleasures.  Bert.


--- But none will presently understand their excellence till they are put in possession of them.  H.

11 Extend thy mercy to them that know thee, and thy justice to them that are right in heart.

Ver. 11.  Mercy and justice, are  here of the same import.  Bellar.  Muis.


--- Deliver us from captivity, and extend thy mercies to all thy people.  C.


--- Heart.  Many who have sufficient learning, are destitute of this better quality.  The right of heart are always more knowing than those who are only learned in speculation, and puffed up with pride.  Bert.

12 Let not the foot of pride come to me, and let not the hand of the sinner move me.

Ver. 12.  Sinner.  Heb. and Sept. "sinners," who are always striving to supplant the just by pride and evil example.  Bert.


--- Let me not listen to their wicked advice.  S. Aug.


--- Let not the enemy invade our country any more.  C.


--- The just may pray that no bad example or pride may place an obstacle to his salvation.  W.

13 There the workers of iniquity are fallen, they are cast out, and could not stand.

Ver. 13.  There.  The devil fell by pride, and man by his persuasion.  Neither could escape punishment.  W.


--- There, in heaven, (S. Jer.) and in paradise, pride proved fatal; (C.) while it will be punished in hell.  S. Amb.


--- Pride and injustice will entail destruction upon our persecutors.  Babylon shall shortly fall a prey to Cyrus.  C.


--- Stand.  Heb. "kum," "rise again."  The proud are seldom converted, (Bert.) and the rebel angels had no redress.  M.

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