Ver. 1. Achimelech. So Clem. VIII. corrects what Sixtus V. had printed Abimelech, conformably to the Heb. &c. Some editors have since pretended that the word, (C.) which is retained in Berthier and Calmet, though we should think such changes improper, unless they were made by proper authority. H.
--- Many of the ancients suppose that Achimelech (who is also styled Abimelech, the high priest at Nobe) is here meant, from whom David concealed his real design. Euseb. S. Athan. S. Jer. &c.
--- Others rather think that the psalm was composed after David had escaped the great danger at the court of Achis, by counterfeiting madness. 1 K. xxi. 13. S. Aug. Muis, &c.
--- Achis alone is styled king among the Satraps. Those who ruled over the Philistines, generally bore the title of Abimelech, as the Egyptian monarchs had that of Pharao. Bert. Gen. xxi. 22. C. W.
--- This psalm is alphabetical. The last verse beginning with p, is supernumerary, and may belong to the next psalm. See Ps. xxiv. C.
--- There seems also to be something wanting in v. 6. (Houbig.) unless e and v have each only one hemistic. H.
--- From the change of names, and of David's countenance, S. Aug. gathers the vocation of the Gentiles, the real presence, &c. W. See 1 K. xxi. H.
PSALM XXXIII. (BENEDICAM DOMINUM.)
An exhortation to the praise and service of God.
Ver. 2. Mouth. The just praise God in adversity, as well as in prosperity. W.
--- David had lately been delivered in a wonderful manner. C.
Ver. 3. Praised. Heb. "glory." Ps. xxxi. 11. H.
--- Others, seeing my treatment will give praise to thee, the Author of all good, (C.) and I shall be praised while I serve thee. W.
Ver. 4. Together, (in idipsum). "If you love God, draw all to the love of God." S. Aug.
--- The multitude will not diminish his attention to you. C.
Ver. 5. Troubles. Heb. "fears or straits;" angustiis. S. Jer. H.
--- The Vulg. adopts the Alex. Sept. qliyewn: the Vatican copy has, paroikiwn, "habitations," at Nobe, Geth, &c. Seek the Lord, while he may be found. Is. lv. 6. Those who entertain doubts about religion, who are in sin, or tend to perfection, must all strive to find the Lord. The matter is of the utmost importance. Bert.
Ver. 6. Come, "by faith and good works." S. Jer.
--- Enlightened. Heb. also, "flow together." S. Jer.
--- You need not be afraid of impoverishing him. C.
--- The points would require, (Bert.) "They looked...and were lightened, (Prot.) or flowed unto him." Marg. H.
--- But the Sept. &c. knew nothing of them, and Houbigant agrees with our version. Bert.
--- And. Here v comes in its proper place, though for only half of the verse. H.
Ver. 7. This. I myself, whom you beheld in the midst of afflictions. H.
--- Poverty is a great inducement for God to shew mercy. Bert.
--- The poorest may approach without fear. W.
Ver. 8. Encamp. Lit. "send." H.
--- This is explained of Jesus Christ, by S. Aug. and S. Jerom. C.
--- Heb. and Sept. (parembalei) intimate that the angel himself shall encamp round God's servants, so that no evil shall come near them. H.
--- This has often been verified. Gen. xxxii. 1. and xlviii. 16. and 4 K. vi. 16. &c. C.
--- One angel is here represented as equal to a great army. A Prot. commentator observes, that David attributed his escape to the protection of an angel, and was very thankful for it. We see, therefore, what advantages we may derive from the blessed spirit? What then should hinder us from addressing our prayers to them? Bert.
Ver. 9. Taste, in the blessed Eucharist, (S. Athan. S. Aug. Theod.) or by experience. C. 1 Pet. ii. 3.
Ver. 10. Want. In the old law, God was more particularly engaged to defend his servants from distress. Though, as they were sometimes under oppression, they knew that they were to look for more substantial blessings from heaven. Hence they would not have exchanged their condition for that of the richest worldling. Such ought to be still more our sentiments, since we have beheld Christ dying naked on the cross, and his martyrs rejoicing under the most excruciating torments. C.
Ver. 11. Rich of this world, (1 Tim. vi. 17. M.) are often poor in spiritual gifts. W.
--- Those who are poor in both respects, are truly miserable, (H.) since they cannot satisfy their craving appetite. But the prophet admires those who are poor in spirit, whether they have many possessions or not. Bert.
--- The fear of the Lord is his treasure. Is. xxxiii. 6. The saint is content under every dispensation of Providence. H.
--- Lazarus was truly rich even here; and in heaven his is covered with glory. Lu. xvi. 20. S. Jer. C.
--- Heb. "the lions have wanted." S. Jer.
--- This may have been the case: yet those who fear God shall be filled; or, the rich may be designated by the name of lion's whelps, on account of their power and avidity. C.
--- The same term, cephirim, is often applied to men in power. Ezec. xix 2. Job iv. 10. Bert.
--- Good. If the saints be sometimes deprived of provisions, they know that it is better for them; as God directs all for their good. H.
Ver. 12. Children; docile and free from pride and hypocrisy.
Ver. 13. Good days. S. Peter (1 ep. iii. 10.) adopts this sense, though the Heb. is rendered, "and desireth days, that he may see good." The apostles shews that heaven is here principally meant, though a virtuous life is the best to procure even present happiness. Bert.
--- Many of David's followers probably confined their views to the latter. C.
--- Every one desireth to be happy, but only the virtuous are really so. W.
Ver. 14. Guile. He very properly begins with regulating the tongue, as this member may prove very dangerous. Prov. xviii. 21. Jam. iii. 5. By detraction, it wounds three people; and it causes no less evil by flattery. C.
Ver. 15. Good. It will not suffice to refrain from criminal actions. Ps. xxxvi. 27.
--- Peace, both private and public. Jer. xxix. 7. C.
--- A person may, notwithstanding, have much to suffer. But S. Peter prevents this objection, by proclaiming those happy who suffer for justice sake. v. 14. Bert.
--- Good works are necessary as well as faith. W.
Nam frustra vitium vitaveris illud
Si te alio pravum detorseris. Hor. ii. sat. 2.
Ver. 16. Eyes. S. Basil understands the angels. God protects his servants, (H.) while he treats the wicked with severity. C.
Ver. 17. To cut, &c. S. Peter leaves this out; perhaps because temporal punishments would not be so often inflicted upon the wicked under the new law; as God tries his faithful, and teaches them to wait till judgment, when all will be treated according to their deserts. Bert.
--- He sees all men's actions, and will reward them accordingly. W.
Ver. 18. Just. This word is omitted in Heb. but it is supplied by al the versions; which shews that the original is not quite perfect. Bert.
--- If this were left out, the passage would refer to the wicked, v. 16. Yet S. Jerom found the Heb. in this state. H.
--- Troubles. Many experienced the divine protection in a wonderful manner, and though others fell victims to persecution, (Heb. xi. 36.) yet they were perfectly resigned to God's will, (Bert.) and thus obtained their wishes, receiving a better reward in eternity. C.
Ver. 19. Them. Heb. "broken-hearted;" to the humble and distressed. H.
--- God is very near to such. C. Ps. l. 19. and xc. 15. See S. Polyc. ad Phil. ii.
Ver. 20. Many. David was too well informed to promise that the just would experience no affliction? but it will not last for ever. C. Heb. xii. 6.
--- If God seem to forsake them for a time, he gives them interior strength, and will at last crown his own gifts. W.
Ver. 21. Broken. Their virtue which is denoted by the bones, (M.) shall not sink under torments. So Christ encouraged his disciples, by assuring them that a hair of their head should not perish. Mat. x. 30. S. Aug. C.
--- The elements of our bodies cannot be divided or destroyed by human force, so as to prevent their resurrection. The identical bodies shall rise again, though they may have been subject to many changes, reduced to ashes, or consumed by wild beasts. This mystery has often offended incredulous philosophers. Jesus Christ is the just, by excellence; and this prediction was fulfilled in his person, as S. John (xix. 36.) does not confine himself to the type of the paschal lamb. Bert.
Ver. 22. Evil, or "bad." Chal. Heb. also, "malice shall slay the wicked." They can attribute their misfortunes only to their own misconduct. Bert.
--- Guilty, and shall be treated as criminals; a fate which the just shall never experience, v. 23. The death of Saul seems to be foretold. C.
--- The wicked are forced to quit the world and their bodies which they have idolized, and are hurled into everlasting fire. S. Bern.
--- In punishment of former transgressions, they are suffered to fall into more sins; while those who place their confidence in God's grace, will be preserved. W.
--- "Death in not indeed the last, but those torments destined for the profligate in hell, occupy the last place." Plato, Leg. ix.
Ver. 23. Redeem. This verse greatly resembles that which is placed, in like manner, out of the alphabetical order, at the end of Ps. xxiv. Heb. in both, "Redeem, O Lord," &c. H.