Ver. 1. Fool: the man of the most depraved morals, the atheist and deist. There have always been (Bert.) such pests of society. H.
--- David has refuted them again. Ps. lii. Bert.
--- Some have imagined that this psalm was composed in consequence of the blasphemies of Rabsaces, (4 K. xviii. 32. Theodoret, &c.) or of the Babylonians. C.
--- The Fathers explain it of Jesus Christ, denied by the Jews, &c.
--- Heart. This must be strangely corrupted, before the mouth can utter such impiety. H.
--- No God. Chal. "no power of God on earth." Elohim denotes particularly "judges." There have been a few philosophers who have denied the existence of God; and more who have called in question his Providence: though this amounts to the same thing. But the number of those who confess God with the mouth, and deny him by their works, is immense. H.
--- These live as if there were no judge. C.
--- By sin they come at last to think there is none to govern the world. W.
--- Plato (Leg. 10.) acknowledged that three sorts of people offend God; those who deny him; who say that He does not mind human affairs; or those who think that presents may prevail on him to connive at their wickedness. It is doubtful whether the mind can ever be so darkened as to believe that there is no God. Bert.
--- The heart may wish there were none to punish its impiety. H.
--- Libertinage or pride gives birth to so many infidels. They have begun by reducing conscience to silence. Their arguments only tend to destroy.
--- No, not one, is not in Heb. Sept. &c. except in v. 3. C.
--- Yet it occurs in the Vatican Sept, which is the best. Bert. C.
--- "They are become abominable, with earnestness there is none who doth good." S. Jer. H.
--- Or they sin designedly and with affectation. C.
--- All are unable to do good without the Redeemer. W.
--- Some explain this of mankind in general, as all are born in sin. David refers also to actual and habitual sinners. Bert.
--- S. Paul (Rom. iii.) proves from this text, and Isai. lix. 7, that all stand in need of grace and faith, and cannot be saved either by the law of nature or of Moses. But it does not follow that faith alone will save, or that the most just are still wicked, as Calvin and Beza falsely expound the Scriptures. For the prophets speak of those who were not yet justified, teaching that all mankind were once in sin, and could not be justified but by Christ. At the same time, they assert that, when they are justified, they must serve justice to bear fruit, and obtain happiness. Rom. vi. These points are well explained by S. Aug.: (de Sp. et lit. i. 9.) "The just are justified freely by his grace," not by the law or will; though this is not effected without the will, &c. The same holy doctor (c. 27) observes, that the just do not live free from all venial sins, and yet remain in the state of salvation; while the wicked continue in the state of damnation, though they do some good works. W.
PSALM XIII. (DIXIT INSIPIENS.)
The general corruption of men, before our redemption by Christ.
Ver. 2. God. Those only who seek God, understand their real interests. H.
--- The pagans, and particularly those of Babylon, lived in the greatest dissolution, so as to call loudly for vengeance, v. 5. C.
--- Both the understanding and the will were gone astray. Bert.
Ver. 3. Unprofitable. Without faith in Christ, none have meritorious works. W.
--- Not one. Such was the condition of the world before Christ, as all were born in sin. "No one," says S. Aug. "can do good, except he shew the method." All were immersed in ruin, "except the holy Virgin, concerning whom, for the honour of the Lord, I would have no question at all, in treating of sins." S. Aug. de Nat. et Grat. con. Pelag. xxxvii. 44. C.
--- The Council of Trent approves of this reserve, when speaking of original sin. Our Saviour is the source of this privilege, and much more out of the question. He could not be guilty of any sort of transgression. He was in all things like to us, excepting sin. H.
--- Their, &c. What follows to shall not, (v. 4.) occurs in S. Paul; (Rom. iii. 11, 12, 13.) whence S. Jerom supposes that it has been inserted here, though the apostle took the quotations from different parts of scripture. Praef. in xvi. Isai. He informs us, that all the Greek commentators marked it as not found in Heb. or the Sept. "except in the Vulg. or koinh, which varied in different parts of the world." There seems to be no reason why it should have been omitted designedly, whereas some might insert it, through the false notion that S. Paul had taken it from this psalm. C.
--- The Heb. is not therefore mutilated, but the Vulg. redundant. Amama.
--- Yet this is not absolutely clear. We find the quotation in the Rom. Sept. which is the most correct; (Bert.) though some prefer the Alex. MSS. H.
--- It is also in the Arab. and Ethiopic versions; so that it might have been in S. Paul's copy. Our Saviour read a passage from Isaias, which is not extant. Luke iv. 19. Bert.
--- S. Justin, S. Aug. &c. agree with the Vulg.; and Lindan mentions a Heb. copy which had these verses, though the learned have reason to think that this Heb. was of a modern date. C.
--- Prot. 1577, inserted these three verses, (W.) which they now omit.
--- Sepulchre. They are never satisfied with destruction, (H.) and with vexing others. W.
--- We bear in ourselves the seed of corruption, which can be prevented from growing up only by the grace of Jesus Christ. Bert.
--- Perdition is from thyself, O Israel. H.
Ver. 4. Know my just providence, though they would fain keep it out of sight, (v. 1.) that they may indulge their passions. H.
--- My people. These we may conclude, were just; (Bert.) at least in comparison with their cruel oppressors, (H.) who made it their daily practice to injure them, (S. Aug.) as they could do it with facility. Num. xix. 9. Prov. xxx. 14. Mic. iii. 2. C.
--- The prophet, in God's name, complains of their eagerness to hurt the good. W.
Ver. 5. Where. This expression refers to there, which is in Heb. though this last part of the verse is wanting. Capel.
--- It is in Ps. lii. 6., and this renders the former omission (v. 3.) more credible. Bert.
--- When Cyrus approached to besiege Babylon, Nabonides, the king, met him, and gave him battle; but losing the victory, he, in a panic, retreated to Borsippe, and abandoned the defence of his capital. Beros. apud Jos. con. App. l. The citizens were in the utmost consternation. Isai. xiii. and xxi., &c. C.
--- But the wicked tremble at the prospect of temporal losses, (M.) and at shadows, while they boldly affront the Deity. Unbelievers find difficulties in the Catholic doctrines, which are frequently attributed to their own mistakes. H.
--- The pagans would not believe in God, but trembled before idols; which cannot hurt the faithful. W.
Ver. 6. Man, who wished sincerely to practise his religion, like Daniel, &c. Such you have persecuted, and hence God has filled you with alarms, and will punish you. C.
--- Some persevere in justice, amid the general contagion and insults of men. W.
Ver. 7. Sion; which God has chosen for his sanctuary. H.
--- Salvation, or the Saviour, whom Jacob expected. Gen. lxix. Bert.
--- This Redeemer would fill all, both Jews and Gentiles, with joy, who should embrace his faith. S. Aug. &c.
--- The prophet seems to foretell the restoration of the ten tribes to the kingdom of Judea, as it took place after the captivity. C. Diss.
--- But he sighed for, and designated more particularly, (H.) the Saviour of the world; who would redeem man from the tyranny of the devil, to the great joy of those who strive to supplant every vice, and to contemplate God, (W.) as some interpret the names of Jacob and Israel. H.
--- The Gentiles will then be ingrafted into the stock of Abraham, (M.) into the true olive-tree. Rom. xi. H.