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ALLELUIA. Give glory to the Lord, for he is good: for his mercy endureth for ever.

Ver. 1.  Alleluia.  The word is repeated in some copies.  S. Jer.


--- But Heb. has only one at the end of the preceding psalm: of which this appears to be a sequel.  As in the former, God's favours were specified, so here the ingratitude of his people is acknowledge.  C.


--- It may refer to the Jews during, (Euseb.  Vatab.) or after the captivity, (C.) and to all in the state of sin.  S. Jer.  Bert.


--- The 47th and 48th verses agree with the three last, which were sung at the translation of the ark.  1 Par. xvi. 34.  H.


--- Hence that canticle now makes a part of our Ps. civ. xcv. and cv. with various alterations made by the prophet.  Bert.


--- Give glory.  Lit. "confess" (H.) your sins, to obtain mercy, (S. Chrys.) or rather praise God, (Theod.) who is the source of all good.  W.


--- This was the usual prayer of the Israelites, in ceremonies of thanksgiving.  2 Par. v. 13.  C.


A confession of the manifold sins and ingratitude of the Israelites.


2 Who shall declare the powers of the Lord? who shall set forth all his praises?

Ver. 2.  Powers.  See Eccli. xliii. 29.  No one can sufficiently praise God's power or mercy.  Bert.


3 Blessed are they that keep judgment, and do justice at all times.

Ver. 3.  Times.  He only who perseveres to the end shall be crowned.  Matt. xxiv. 13.  Ezec. xxxiii. H.


--- Such as these can alone worthily sound forth God's praises, (Bert.) being so happy as to preserve their innocence, or at least to repent.  W.

4 Remember us, O Lord, in the favour of thy people: visit us with thy salvation.

Ver. 4.  Us.  Heb. "me."  But Aquila, Syr. &c. agree with the Sept.  Some of the Jews were already returned, and pray for the liberation of their brethren.  C.


--- The Fathers explain it of Christian converts.  S. Chrys.


--- People.  According to thy gracious promises, that we may enjoy the blessings of thy elect.  W.

5 That we may see the good of thy chosen, that we may rejoice in the joy of thy nation: that thou mayst be praised with thy inheritance. 6 We have sinned with our fathers: we have acted unjustly, we have wrought iniquity.

Ver. 6.  Sinned.  Here commences the confession of sins.  The just man first accuses himself.  Prov. xviii. 17.  C.


--- The same prayer is repeated, Judith vii. 19. and Dan. ix. 5. as it might be applicable to the captives.  Bert.


--- We have injured ourselves, our neighbours, and our God.  W.


7 Our fathers understood not thy wonders in Egypt: they remembered not the multitude of thy mercies: And they provoked to wrath going up to the sea, even the Red Sea.

Ver. 7.  Going up.  Or proceeding.  The banks of the sea were more elevated than the country from which the Israelites came, (C.) and the land of Chanaan was still higher.  See Ps. cvi. 23.  Gen. xii. 9.  H.


--- Sea even.  Is not in the Sept.  C.

8 And he saved them for his own name's sake: that he might make his power known.

Ver. 8.  Known.  Is. lxiii. 12.  He might justly (W.) have abandoned them to the Egyptians.  Ex. xiv. 11.

9 And he rebuked the Red Sea, and it was dried up: and he led them through the depths, as in a wilderness.

Ver. 9.  Rebuked.  Commanding with power.


--- Nah. i. 4.  C.


--- Wilderness. Or plain country.  H.


10 And he saved them from the hand of them that hated them: and he redeemed them from the hand of the enemy.

Ver. 10.  Redeemed.  What price was given?  This is a figure of baptism, in which the fruits of Christ's blood are applied to our souls.  All sins are there destroyed, as the Egyptians were in the Sea.  S. Aug.  Ser. xlii. de Temp.  W.

11 And the water covered them that afflicted them: there was not one of them left.

Ver. 11.  Left.  Manetho and Lorin assert, that Pharao reigned afterwards.  But this is contrary to the Scripture.  All who came to attack Israel perished.  C.


--- They supposed that the waters were enchanted.  S. Iræn. iv. 48.


12 And they believed his words: and they sang his praises.

Ver. 12.  Words.  And Moses his servant.  Ex. xiv. 31. and xv. 1.

13 They had quickly done, they forgot his works: and they waited not for his counsels.

Ver. 13.  Counsel.  Three days after the passage of the sea, God laid injunctions upon the at Mara, which they would not observe.  Ex. xv. 22.  C.


--- They coveted unnecessary things.  W.

14 And they coveted their desire in the desert: and they tempted God in the place without water.

Ver. 14.  Desire.  Or they greedily sought for flesh meat, (H.) at Sin, or Pharan.  Ex. xvi. 13.  Num. xi. 31.  Chronological order is not observed.  C.


15 And he gave them their request: and sent fulness into their souls.

Ver. 15.  Fulness.  Or disgust: plesmonh.  Sept. probably read zore, (as Num. xi. 20.) instead of razon.  Heb. "leanness," (C.) which is a natural consequence of immoderate repletion.  H.


16 And they provoked Moses in the camp, Aaron the holy one of the Lord.

Ver. 16.  Holy one.  By his function (W.) of priest.  Core wished to take his place, as the rest did to supplant Moses in the civil government.  Num. xvi.  C.

17 The earth opened and swallowed up Dathan: and covered the congregation of Abiron.

Ver. 17.  Adiron.  With Core, though  his children were preserved.  C.


--- God presently resented the injury done to his ministers.  Euseb.


18 And a fire was kindled in their congregation: the flame burned the wicked.

Ver. 18.  Wicked.  Two hundred and fifty accomplices, (Num. xv. 35.  C.) and fourteen thousand seven hundred murmurers.  M.

19 They made also a calf in Horeb: and they adored the graven thing.

Ver. 19.  Graven.  Heb. "molten."  The image must first be graven.  Bert.  Ex. xxxii. 3.


20 And they changed their glory into the likeness of a calf that eateth grass.

Ver. 20.  Grass.  This enhances their folly.  God is often styled the glory of his people.  C.


--- Osee (x. 5.) contemptuously calls the golden calf, the glory of Samaria.  H.


--- This idolatry was truly blameable, (Rom. i. 23.) and not the veneration paid by Catholics to the images of Christ, &c.  W.


--- Those who pretend that the Hebrews meant to adore the true God, and not the idol Apis, are here clearly refuted; they forgot God, &c.  Acts vii. 40.  Bert.


21 They forgot God, who saved them, who had done great things in Egypt,

22 wondrous works in the land of Cham: terrible things in the Red Sea.


Cham. Who resided there, and was worshipped under the name of Jupiter Ammon. Bochart, Phaleg. iv. 1. C.

23 And he said that he would destroy them: had not Moses his chosen stood before him in the breach: To turn away his wrath, lest he should destroy them.

Ver. 23.  Breach.  Like a valiant captain, (C.) or pastor.  H.


--- God complains of those who neglected this duty.  Ezec. xiii. 5. and xxii. 30.  The psalmist alluded to the conduct of Moses, after the people had adored the calf, (Ex. xxxii. 10.) or when they had joined with Core.  Num. xvi. 44.  C.


--- The intercession of the saints is useful, (S. Aug.) still more after their victories.  S. Jer. ad Vig. ii. 2  Mac. xv. 14.  Bert.


--- God spared the people for the sake of Moses.  W.


24 And they set at nought the desirable land. They believed not his word,

Ver. 24.  Word.  Which Moses, Josue, &c. announced.  Num. xiii. and xii. 29.  C.

25 and they murmured in their tents: they hearkened not to the voice of the Lord. 26 And he lifted up his hand over them: to overthrow them in the desert;

Ver. 26.  Over them.  Swearing C. to destroy them, (H.  Ezec. xx. 23.) and scatter them, as they now experienced.  Lev. xxvi. 31. and Deut. xxviii. 36. 64.


27 And to cast down their seed among the nations, and to scatter them in the countries. 28 They also were initiated to Beelphegor: and ate the sacrifices of the dead.

Ver. 28.  Dead idols, without life, (Ch.) particularly Adonis (C.) whose death is bewailed by the poets, &c.  H.


--- Idols kill their votaries.  W.

29 And they provoked him with their inventions: and destruction was multiplied among them.

Ver. 29.  Multiplied.  All who had murmured perished, or this may relate to the 24,000.  Num. xxv. 9.  C.


--- Ezec. xx. 23.  S. Paul (1 Cor. x. 8.) speaks of those 23,000 slain by the Levites.  The Heb. which has only 3,000 must be inaccurate.  Temporal chastisements were intended to prefigure those which are eternal, as the Jews knew that such rewards and punishments were to be considered (Matt. xix. 16.  Bert.) as the spiritual sense of the law.  Grot. Jur. ii. 20, 39.

30 Then Phinees stood up, and pacified him: and the slaughter ceased.


31 And it was reputed to him unto justice, to generation and generation for evermore.

Ver. 31.  Evermore.  Phinees thus by his pious zeal, merited (W.) God's favour, and the high priesthood (Num. xxv. 13.  C.) for his posterity, for 900 years, though the latter promise seems to have been conditional.  Bert.

32 They provoked him also at the waters of contradiction: and Moses was afflicted for their sakes:


33 because they exasperated his spirit. And he distinguished with his lips.

Ver. 33.  He distinguished with his lips.  Moses, by occasion of the people's rebellion and incredulity, was guilty of distinguishing with his lips; when, instead of speaking to the rock, as God had commanded, he said to the people, with a certain hesitation in his faith, Hear ye rebellious and incredulous: Can we from this rock bring out water for you?  Num. xx. 10.  Ch.


--- For thus doubting of God's will, he was temporarily punished,. Deut. i. 37.  W.


--- The death of his sister, and the ingratitude and rebellion of the people disturbed him.  Theod.  See Is. lxiii. 10.  Houbigant follows the Arab. "he delayed or hesitated."  Yebatte means, "he spoke rashly."  Some refer this, (Bert.) to God.  "He reproached...that they," &c. (M.) which is not necessary, (Bert.) or he sentenced Moses to die.  Kimchi.

34 They did not destroy the nations of which the Lord spoke unto them. 35 And they were mingled among the heathens, and learned their works: 36 and served their idols, and it became a stumblingblock to them.
37 And they sacrificed their sons, and their daughters to devils. 38 And they shed innocent blood: the blood of their sons and of their daughters which they sacrificed to the idols of Chanaan. And the land was polluted with blood,

Ver. 38.  Chanaan.  These unnatural sacrifices were perhaps practised under the judges, or at least under the kings.  W.


--- Some pretend that the children were only made to pass over or between fires.  But this is refuted by facts.  Lev. xviii. 21. and 4 K. xvi. 3.  Jer. vii. 30


--- Polluted.  Infecta: efonoktanhqh is used by Sept. in this sense, though it signifies also, "was slain;" interfecta, as most Latin Bibles and Fathers read, before the correction of Clem. VIII.  The former expression is more natural and conformable to the Heb.  C.

39 and was defiled with their works: and they went aside after their own inventions.

Ver. 39.  And was.  Heb. "and they were defiled."  S. Jer.


--- Inventions.  Idols of their imaginations, (H.) and lusts.  C.

40 And the Lord was exceedingly angry with his people: and he abhorred his inheritance. 41 And he delivered them into the hands of the nations: and they that hated them had dominion over them. 42 And their enemies afflicted them: and they were humbled under their hands: 43 many times did he deliver them. But they provoked him with their counsel: and they were brought low by their iniquities. 44 And he saw when they were in tribulation: and he heard their prayer. 45 And he was mindful of his covenant: and repented according to the multitude of his mercies.

Ver. 45.  Repented.  Ceased to punish, (Euseb.) when the people repented.  S. Jer.


--- God then regarded them in mercy, having given them grace to repent.  W.


46 And he gave them unto mercies, in the sight of all those that had made them captives.

Ver. 46.  Mercies.  He inspired their enemies with pity for them.  Cyrus, Darius, and Artaxerxes shewed them favour.  Ps. lxxxiii. 12.  C.

47 Save us, O Lord, our God: and gather us from among nations: That we may give thanks to thy holy name, and may glory in thy praise.

Ver. 47.  Save.  These verses, which may be well recited in times of schism, (W.) occur, 1 Par. xvi. being probably inserted by Esdras, or some other prophet.  But here they are in their proper place, as many of the Israelites are still in captivity.  C.


--- yet as this is only a system, we may rather suppose, that David wrote this conclusion.  He had to encounter various nations, who might have made captives; and he may beg that all may be united in the same faith, and avoid the society of the wicked.  Bert.

48 Blessed be the Lord the God of Israel, from everlasting to everlasting: and let all the people say: So be it, so be it.

Ver. 48.  So be it.  The second Amen occurs not in Heb.  But Alleluia is placed instead, which the Vulg. makes the title of the next psalm.  H.


--- This conclusion of the fourth book seems to be added by the collector.  Ps. xl.  C.


--- Yet this is uncertain.  H.

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