Solomon. This title is not found in Sixtus V. or Sept. Hitherto the preface extends, shewing the advantages of wisdom. C.
--- The subsequent chapters more properly contain the parables, and are written with great elegance, so as to oppose vice to virtue. See Bain. S. Jer. &c. W.
Ver. 1. Mother. A virtuous child cannot be indifferent to the joy of his parents.
Ver. 2. Wickedness. Riches ill acquired, or tending to corrupt the heart. Lu. xvi. 9.
Ver. 3. Famine. Ps. xxxvi. 25. The prophets and Lazarus rejoice in suffering.
Ver. 4. Poverty. Even of those who had plenty. This is true in a spiritual sense likewise. C.
--- The kingdom of heaven suffereth violence. H.
--- Otiositas mater nugarum, noverca virtutum. S. Bern. consid. ii.
--- He, &c. This is not in Heb. Greek, S. Jer. or in several Latin copies. C.
--- We find it in the Sept. C. ix. 13.
--- Away. He derives no benefits from lies. M.
Ver. 5. He. Sept. "a son well educated shall be wise, and shall have the unwise for his servant. An intelligent son has been saved from the heat. But the wicked son is destroyed by the wind in time of harvest." H.
--- A good part of this is not in the original; yet it is received by the Greeks.
Ver. 6. Wicked. Or, as the Heb. seems to indicate, "the wicked covereth iniquity, by an hypocritical exterior," (C.) or, "the injury" (Mont.) done to another, (chamas. H.) "unseasonable, or infinite mourning," penqoV awron. Sept.
Ver. 7. Rot. Heb. "stink." His reputation shall be lost. Gen. xxxiv. 20. C.
Ver. 8. Lips. He will not bear correction. M.
--- But suffers the punishment of his own unguarded speeches; or rather the man who hath foolish lips, shall be beaten, v. 13. C.
Ver. 9. Sincerely. Or Simply, Heb. "in uprightness," (H.) or innocence. M.
--- Manifest. The hypocrite shall be at last detected.
Ver. 10. Sorrow. Sept. add, "to men as well as to himself." C.
--- "But he who chides boldly shall make peace," (H.) or "work safety," as the Syr. and Arab. also read, instead of Heb. "a prating fool shall fall." "When a man connives at his friend's failings,...the offender is encouraged to sin on, and to heap up matter for very sorrowful reflections; but the man, who with an honest freedom, prudently reproves him, most effectually contrives his honour and safety." The consequences of a virtuous and a vicious friendship, seem to be also expressed in the next verse. Thus the latter hemistic generally illustrates the first. But here, part of v. 8. may be improperly inserted. The two parts of the verses in Proverbs, &c. being arranged in distinct columns, has occasioned sometimes a part, and sometimes a whole verse, to be omitted, as the transcriber might mistake the line. Kennicott.
Ver. 11. Life. Or a never-failing spring, fons perennis, as we should speak in Latin. C. xiii. 14. Apoc. vii. 17.
Ver. 12. Sins. Sept. "all who contend." Charity pardons all. 1 Pet. iv. 8.
Ver. 13. Sense. Lit. "a heart." But the Hebrews use this expression in a different sense from what we do, and thus designate a fool. Ose. vii. 11.
Ver. 14. Confusion. He speaks inconsiderately, and involves himself in continual dangers, while the wise are cautious in their speech.
Ver. 15. Poverty. Diffidence hinders the advancement of the poor, as presumption is too common among the rich. A happy mediocrity is best. v. 16.
Ver. 16. Life. In abundance he is not puffed up; but the wicked make use of their fruit or revenue to do evil. Their works are bad, unless they turn to God by at least an initial love of justice.
Ver. 18. Foolish. We must neither dissemble our resentment, through hypocrisy, nor manifest it without reason. C.
Ver. 19. Sin. A prolix discourse on subjects of importance is not reprehended. S. Aug. Retrac. 1.
--- But it is very difficult to speak much, without going against some virtue. C.
Ver. 21. Understanding. Lit. "hear." H. v. 13.
Ver. 23. Man. He is enabled to see the evil of sin, and to avoid it. Job xv. 16.
Ver. 26. Him. He spoils all their projects, (C.) and becomes a nuisance.
Ver. 29. Evil. conscience upbraids them, and punishment is before their eyes. H. Magna vis est conscientiæ. Cic. pro Mil.
Ver. 30. Earth. This the Jews frequently experienced. The more enlightened understood, that such promises regarded also eternity. C.