Ver. 1. Brethren, &c. Or, call your brethren, My people; and your sister, Her that hath obtained mercy. This is connected with the latter end of the foregoing chapter, and relates to the converts of Israel. Ch.
--- I seemed to have abandoned them at the great day of carnage; (H.) but I will still receive (C.) this portion of my people, as well as Juda. H.
--- Disdain not to call them brethren. More of the ten tribes than of the others embraced the faith of Christ, and more Gentiles than Jews became converts. W.
Ver. 2. Your mother: the synagogue. C.
--- He addresses Juda, (v. 11, 15.) or all God's people. C. i. 11. This vineyard yields no good fruit. Is. v. Idolatry prevails. Ezec. xvi. 5. and xxiii. 3.
Ver. 3. Drought. In Egypt the people were plunged into idolatry, and oppressed. C.
Ver. 4. Fornications. They imitate their parents. H.
--- I will not spare them, as I did some in the wilderness. S. Jer.
--- Punishment will not cease till people repent. W.
Ver. 5. Lovers: idols, and foreign nations. Ezec. xvi. 15, 33.
Ver. 6. Paths. The aid which she sought from foreigners shall prove vain.
--- It is often an effect of mercy, when our wicked plans miscarry. S. Jer.
Ver. 8. Baal: or they formed idols.
BaalBaal (1Chron 4:33), probably identical with Baalath Beer Ramath (Josh 19:8; Simeon), poss. Biâr Mãyîn, or Tell el-Lekiyeh, N. of Bersabee. Baal, or Ballath. Jos. xix. 1.
Ver. 9. Season. When the harvest is ripe, the loss is more afflicting. God withdraws what proves an occasion of sin.
--- Liberty. The creature serves unwillingly. Rom. viii. 21.
Ver. 10. Folly, or shame. Gen. xxxiv. 7. Judg. xix. 23.
Ver. 11. Times. This was verified during the captivity.
Ver. 13. Ear. Heb. "nose-ring," or ornaments hanging from the nose. C.
Ver. 14. I will allure her, &c. After her disloyalties, I will still allure her by my grace, &c. and send her vine-dressers, viz. the apostles, originally her own children, who shall open to her the gates of hope; as heretofore, at her coming into the land of promise, she had all good success after she had satisfied the divine justice by the execution of Achan, in the valley of Achor. Jos. vii. Ch.
--- Sept. "I will seduce or make her stray;" planw. H.
--- I will permit her to yield to error, in captivity; (Theod.) or will cause her hopes to be frustrated yet in exile I will comfort her. The Jews were not changed till they had seen the vanity of idols, and suffered much. C.
--- God's grace prevents sinners, that they may be converted. W.
Ver. 15. Vine. Heb. "vineyards there," (C.) or "from," &c. H.
--- Achor. The environs of Jericho were very enchanting. Is. lxv. 10.
--- Sing is better than Sept. "shall be humbled." Heb. "shall answer," as people singing alternately. C.
Ver. 16. My husband. In Heb. Ishi.
--- Baali: my lord. The meaning of this verse is: that, whereas, Ishi and Baali were used indifferently in those days by wives speaking to their husbands, the synagogue, whom God was pleased to consider as his spouse, should call him only Ishi, and abstain from the name of Baali, because of his affinity with the name of the idol Baal. Ch.
--- The very name shall become obsolete. H.
Ver. 17. Baalim. It is the plural number of Baal; for there were divers idols of Baal. Ch.
--- The Jews hence styled Esbaal, Isboseth; as boseth means "confusion." 1 Par. viii. 33.
Ver. 18. Beasts. The most savage nations shall receive the gospel, and become mild. Is. xi. 6. Theod.
--- Wild beasts shall not infest the land. Lev. xxvi. 22. C.
Ver. 19. I will espouse thee, &c. This relates to the happy espousals of Christ with his Church, which shall never be dissolved. Ch.
--- God gives the dowry, justice, &c.
Ver. 20. Faith, the root of all virtues. We shall be true to each other. This has been realized only in the Church of Christ. C.
Ver. 21. Hear the heavens, &c. All shall conspire in favour of the Church, which in the following verse is called Jezrahel, that is, the seed of God. Ch.
--- Harmony shall subsist between all the parts of the universe. The earth shall receive rain, &c. This happiness was enjoyed in figure by the Jews, after their return, and in reality by Christians. Theod.
Ver. 22. Jezrahel. This most fruitful valley shall again be covered with abundant crops. The whole nation of the Jews shall be happy. C.
Ver. 24. That which is not my people, &c. This relates to the conversion of the Gentiles, (Ch.) as the apostles explain it. 1 Pet. ii. 10. Rom. ix. W.