Ver. 1. Spoke. When Jeroboam proposed to erect the golden calves, people were seized with horror; yet they consented, and soon after Baal and other idols were worshipped. W.
--- Ephraim was one of the greatest tribes, and by its example the rest were drawn into idolatry. Achab principally introduced the worship of Baal, which caused God to decree the misery of his people. 3 K. xvi. 31.
BaalBaal (1Chron 4:33), probably identical with Baalath Beer Ramath (Josh 19:8; Simeon), poss. Biâr Mãyîn, or Tell el-Lekiyeh, N. of Bersabee. Baal, or Ballath. Jos. xix. 1.
Ver. 2. Calves. A cutting reproach! Those who could stoop to adore a calf, might be so blind as to sacrifice men! Heb. "sacrifice, ye men who," &c. Jeroboam issues this edict. C.
--- Sept. "immolate men; calves are wanting." H.
Ver. 3. Away. C. vi. 4.
--- Chimney, or hole, at the side or top of the room. C.
--- Heb. arubba, (H.) means also "a locust," as the Sept. render it, though here it affords no sense.
Ver. 5. Knew: treated thee with kindness, or tried thee. C.
Ver. 6. Pastures: the more they were indulged. H. Deut. xxxii. 15.
Ver. 7. Lioness. Sept. "panther." I will pursue them even in their captivity.
Ver. 8. Whelps; with the greatest fury. 2 K. xvii. 8.
--- Inner. Heb. "what encloses the heart;" or, I will break their hard heart. C.
Ver. 9. Own. Evils are brought on by the sins of men, which God does not cause. W.
--- Sept. "who will aid to prevent thy perdition, O Israel." H.
--- God alone is the author of salvation. He also punishes, (Amos iii. 6.) but for man's amendment in life. W.
Ver. 10. Princes. It was on this pretext that a king was demanded. 1 K. viii. 20. Will any now save you? M.
Ver. 11. King; Saul, Jeroboam, or the Assyrian.
--- Away. Osee, (C.) so that you shall have no more kings of Israel. H.
--- Sept. alone have, "I took (C.) or had him in," &c. S. Jer.
Ver. 12. Hidden. He thinks to escape. H.
--- But I keep it like pieces of silver, bound up in my treasury. S. Jer. C.
Ver. 13. Him. He shall be taken when he least expects it. His fruit shall come forth. Jer. iv. 31.
--- Children. He shall have no share in the division of property, or shall not escape when the father shall bring his children to an account. The Chal. &c. insinuate, that the infant affords no help to come forth, as it would if it had sense. C.
Ver. 14. Death. This must be understood of eternal misery, from which the just are preserved. All must die, and many suffered a violent death from the Assyrians. W.
--- After denouncing the severest judgments, the prophet promises redress and a sort of resurrection, which was a figure of the real sufferings and rising of Jesus Christ. The apostle applies this text to him, but follows not the Heb. or Sept. 1 Cor. xv. 55. C.
--- Death is swallowed up in victory. O death, where is thy victory? O death, where is thy sting? Prot. read, O grave, (marg. hell) instead of the latter death. Heb. ehi has been twice placed for aie, I will be instead of where? (H.) as the Gr. Arab. and Syr. versions, as wll as the context, evince. All the versions prove the same corruption to be. v. 10. Kennicott, Aquila, and the 5. edit. read where? Sym. I will be: (S. Jer.) so that the change probably took place between A. 130 and 200. Sept. "Where is thy cause gained, (in a lawsuit, or thy justice; dikh. H.) O death?" &c.
--- Eyes. I can find no consolation, (S. Jer.) because the people cause dissension by their perseverance in evil. Hebrew also, "repentance," &c. I will utterly destroy Ephraim; or rather, "vengeance...because he shall flourish," &c. If Ephraim would repent, this should not take place; but now, the Lord will bring Salmanasar, a burning wind. v. 15. C.
Ver. 15. Springs of death; or the sins which Christ, born of a virgin, shall destroy, and liberate the vessels of election from hell. S. Jer. H.