Ver. 1. On. Lit. the wind. H.
--- To trust in men is no less vain. W.
--- Sept. "Ephraim is an evil spirit," &c.
--- Heat. Heb. "eastern or burning wind." H.
--- Manahem attempted to engage Egypt on his side, but he was frustrated in his hopes, (4 K. xv. S. Jer.) as Osee was likewise; to which king the sense conducts us better. C. xiii. 15.
--- Oil. That of Palestine was very excellent. Ezec. xxvii. 17.
Ver. 2. Judgment. Heb. "trial." What follows refers to all the people, whose impiety is contrasted with Jacob's virtue.
Ver. 3. Brother Esau, thus foreshewing what would happen. Gen. xxv.
--- Angel. Sept. "God," whose place this angel held. Elohim implies both. v. 4. Gen. xxxii. 24.
Ver. 4. Wept. Sept. "they wept, and besought me." Other interpreters agree with the Vulg.
--- Us. By changing a vowel point, in Hebrew, it might be, "He spoke to him." Cap. Grot.
--- The most magnificent promises were made, at Bethel, regarding the Israelites: this made the profanation of the place more horrible. C.
--- Sept. "They found me in the house of On, and there the word was addressed to them."
--- Bethaven was the name of Bethel, among the pious Jews, in the days of Osee. H.
BethelBethel, 1 see s.v. — 2 (Josh 12:16; Simeon) another name for Bethul. --- Bethel, as it was called in the days of Moses, being the ancient Luza. C. --- Bethel signifies the house of God, being honoured with two altars. H.
Ver. 5. Memorial, and the object of worship; or this great Jehovah spoke to Jacob.
Ver. 7. Chanaan. The Phœnicians were so called, and all merchants. Here the title is given reproachfully (C.) to all the posterity of Jacob. H.
--- None more ignominious could be used. Dan. xiii. 56. Thus Rome is styled Babylon.
Ver. 8. Idol. Heb. also, "vanity." Riches are vain, and lead to idolatry when people place their affections on them. Mat. xiii. 22. Eph. v. 5.
--- Committed. I am conscious of no injustice. C.
--- Yet he had used a deceitful balance, and his judgment is equally perverse. H.
--- "What rich man shall be saved?" Clem. Alex.
Ver. 9. Egypt. At Sinai the covenant between God and Israel was chiefly ratified. The former ceased not to perform the conditions, but the latter repaid him with ingratitude.
--- Feast. The people shall be brought back, (C.) or they shall again be forced to dwell under tents. Theod.
--- "Shall I still cause?" &c. Tournemine.
Ver. 10. Prophets. They have represented me as it were under visible forms, that you cannot plead ignorance. The prophets prefigured Christ, the end of the law, &c. C.
Ver. 11. Idol. That is, if Galaad, with all its idols and sacrifices, be like a mere idol itself, being brought to nothing by Theglathphalassar, how vain is it to expect that the idols worshipped in Galgal shall be of any service to the tribes that remain. Ch.
--- Will these idols be more powerful? Sept. copies vary. Rom. ed. has Galaad, and Comp. Galgal in both places. But that of S. Jer. and of Theodoret is better.
--- Heaps of stones. They are in ruins, or very numerous: (C.) yet have not secured the country. H.
Ver. 12. Jacob. The history of the patriarch, and of his posterity, serves to place the ingratitude of the people in the clearest light. W.
--- The prophet had interrupted the account of Jacob, (v. 4.) who had signalized his piety in Galaad. Gen. xxxi. 46.
Ver. 13. Prophet. Josue put the people in possession of the country, and offered sacrifice at Galgal, where the rite of circumcision was performed. This place is now defiled. What perfidy (H.) and ingratitude. C.
Ver. 14. Him. He shall suffer for his crimes. M.
--- He can blame only himself. C.