Ver. 1. Salphaad, a descendant of Joseph, had departed this life in the desert, being one of those who sinned, by murmuring, at Cades-barne. See C. xiv. and xv. 32. C.
--- He only left these five daughters behind him; and, as many others might be under the same predicament, their case deserved the attention of the legislator, who referred it to God. H.
Ver. 3. Father, the portion which would have been assigned him; that so those whom we may marry, may take the inheritance, under the name of Salphaad, which some of the children may also bear. M.
Ver. 4-6. Their. The first of these pronouns is written larger than usual, the second is improperly masculine in Heb.; both, it is pretended, to honour the young women. Kennicott.
Ver. 9. Him. The Jews observe, that if the father of the deceased were still alive, he would take the inheritance. Seld. Success. xii. and xiii. But if his wife were inclined to marry again, she might insist on his next relation taking her, before she could be required to give up his goods. Deut. xxv. 5. Hence the Gemarra of Babylon says, "If we are the daughters of Salphaad, let them give us his estate; but if we are not his daughters, let them make the brother of Salphaad marry our mother."
Ver. 11. Uncles. His nephews are at a greater distance from the original stock. The Phœnicians carried the same regulations into Africa. Grot. Jur. ii. 7. The relations by the mother's side, could claim no part. The husband was heir to all his wife's goods, except her dowry, which went to her children. People born of a slave, or of a harlot or strange woman, were not lawful heirs. "These regulations have been adopted by all civilized nations." Orig. hom. 22. C.
AbarimMountains in N. Moab.
Ver. 13. People, in limbo. M.
--- He was not buried in the grave of his ancestors, but on some part of Mount Abarim, called Nebo. Deut. xxxiv. 1. 6. H.
--- Moses, hoping that this sentence of exclusion from the promised land might be only a threat, had earnestly besought God to let him enter. But being forbidden to speak of the matter any more, he understood that it was as irrevocable as an oath. Deut. iii. 26. iv. 21. He turned, therefore, his whole solicitude to obtain of God some one, who might enjoy the honour and happiness of conducting the people, and putting them in possession of God's promises. He regards not flesh and blood on this occasion, (Philo, de caritate. Salien,) but sets a noble pattern for all ecclesiastical superiors to imitate. D.
CadesCades, not far from Mount Hor, on the confines of Idumea, v. 22. and Jud. xi. 16. C. --- Misphat, or of judgment and contradiction, because there the Hebrews contended with Moses and Aaron: it was afterwards called Cadez. Num. xx. 11. --- Cades. The desert of Pharan, or of Cades, is the same. H. --- Sin, or Tsin. Cades is another name of the same desert. Near the city of Cades-barne, the Hebrews encamped a long while, and had plenty of water; but here they murmured for want of it, and Mary departed this life. C. xx. C.
Ver. 16. Flesh, who gives life, and penetrates the secrets of hearts. C. xvi. 22.
Ver. 17. Shepherd. Christ makes use of the same comparison. Jo. x. 1. Kings are often styled shepherds in Homer. Moses begs that his successor may be enabled to conduct the multitude in both peace and war.
--- To go in and out, means to govern, (3 K. iii. 7,) and includes all the occurrences of life. Act. i. 21. Ps. cxx. 8. C.
--- Thus, temporal princes are the shepherds of the people. But they are not, on that account, supreme in spiritual causes. For here Josue only receives part of the glory of Moses, while Eleazar is appointed to consult the Lord for him, and to direct him in all matters of importance, v. 20. 21. W.
Ver. 18. Spirit of God, which was given to him, when he was appointed a judge; (C. xi. 17,) the spirit of prophesy, (Onkelos,) and of wisdom, (Deut. xxxiv. 9,) of which he received a fresh increase, by the imposition of the hands of Moses. By the like ceremony people are confirmed, and ministers of religion are still ordained. Act. vi. 6. 1 Tim. iv. 14. C.
--- God endues Josue with all the necessary qualifications for his high office. He makes choice of him, and not of any of the relations of Moses, that the people might not be offended at the supreme power being in a manner engrossed by one family; and he appoints one 93 year old, that the success of war might not be attributed to Josue, though he had been long at the head of the armies, and a man of greatest authority, even the vice-gerent of Moses. He declares his election before all the multitude, with the high priest at their head, that there might be no dispute about the matter; and, on this account, he requires various external ceremonies to be observed. Salien.
Ver. 20. Precepts, to accept of this office, (C.) and to discharge it with integrity. H.
--- Glory, not that which shone on the face of Moses, as Onkelos would have it, but all the marks of distinction due to a chief magistrate, (C.) the insignia of his office. See Ex. xviii. 21. Salien.
--- Treat him with respect, as your successor. M.
--- Let him henceforward commence to exercise his authority before you, that all the people may hear and obey him. Sararius. T.
Ver. 21. For him. Hebrew adds, "according to the judgment of Urim." See Ex. xxviii. 30. Nothing better shews the theocracy of the Hebrews, as Josephus styles it, (c. Apion. ii.) than this order for the chief magistrate in civil affairs, to consult and be guided by God's minister, and by the sentence which he should pronounce in his name. Till the reign of David, at least, we find few wars undertaken, without consulting God: (C.) and the Rabbins assert, that the kings could not declare any war of their own accord, without the consent of the high priest and Sanhedrim. Seld. Syned. iii. 12. Saul lost his crown and life for not complying with the injunctions of God, which were communicated to him by the prophet Samuel. H.
Ver. 23. Commanded. This Moses executed on his birth-day, when he was 120 years old, (Deut. xxxi. 2. 7,) having frequently before given proper instructions to Josue. Deut. i. 38. and xxxii. 44. H.