Ver. 2. Speak. This law was probably given towards the end of the 40 years, v. 23.
Ver. 3. Victim "of peace," as some Latin copies read, including all the different sorts, v. 28. C.
Ver. 4. Ephi. Heb. "a tenth of flour," or one gomer. D.
Ver. 6. Oil. Greater libations are required for a ram, as it is larger than the former victim, which was accompanied with only half the quantity of fine flour. H.
--- Part of the wine and oil was poured on the flour, and burnt on the altar; the rest was given to the priests.
Ver. 11---15. Thus, &c.
--- Land. In this last verse, the Sam. copy observes a more correct manner of punctuation than the Heb. which is commonly rendered "O congregation." Houbig.
--- The author of the Vulgate has preserved the sense, but not all the words of the original. The strangers here spoken of are the proselytes of justice, who kept all the law. Those of the gate, who lived in the land, uncircumcised, could only present holocausts, without libations. Lev. xxii. 25. C.
--- "The many sacrifices (of the old law) prefigured this one sacrifice" of the new. S. Aug. de C. x. 20. Christ, represented by the oil, offers himself the victim, under the forms of bread and wine. D.
Ver. 20. Eat. Heb. and Sept. "of your dough." They elevated a part towards heaven, and gave it to the priest or Levite, who lived nearest them; and, in case none could be found, as at the present day, they were to burn it in honour of God. Tradition determines the quantity to be between a 40th and a 60th part. S. Jer. in Ezec. xlv. This they do every time they bake, according to Philo, and Leo of Modena, (2. 9,) though the law be not clear, and some might think it sufficient to give a part, the first time they baked with new flour.
Ver. 22. Ignorance. Other victims are prescribed; (Lev. iv. 13,) so that the ignorance here mentioned must be of a different nature. The former was perhaps a sin of commission, and this a sin of omission; such as if the whole people should neglect to eat the paschal lamb. The Rabbins think that the law alludes here to idolatry, committed for want of knowledge. But that is next to impossible in a whole nation. Outram believes, that the Book of Leviticus speaks of those who transgress the negative precepts, without abandoning the true religion; but the present law alludes to those who forget the laws of their fathers, and embrace a false worship. Thus Ezechias offered the victims here prescribed, though more in number, to expiate the idolatry of the people under Achaz, 1 Par. xxix. 21. See also 1 Esdr. viii. 35. Some think Moses has supplied in this place what was left deficient before. But it is more probable, that he supposes here only some of the tribes have sinned ignorantly, while in Leviticus he speaks of the whole nation. C.
--- No one sins for the sake of the offence, but for some advantage which we falsely persuade ourselves we shall derive from doing so. S. Aug. q. 24.
Ver. 25. And for. Heb. "and their sin (offering) in the presence of the Lord, for their ignorance." C.
Ver. 30. Pride. Heb. and Sept. "with hand, or with head (Chald.) uplifted," without shame or control. The Rabbins say, he must deny that God is the author of the law, and sin deliberately, after being admonished, &c. before he will incur this penalty. But why all these restrictions?
--- Rebellious. Heb. "he hath blasphemed, or irritated the Lord." Such crimes imply a contempt of the law.
--- Cut off by God, if the judges neglect to do it. The Hebrews maintain, that each individual has a right to kill such scandalous offenders, as Phinees did Zambri. C. xxv. 7. 1 Mac. ii. 23. It is not clear whether all strangers, living in the country, were subjected to this law. Seld. Jur. ii. 11. Though such crimes were not pardoned by the law, true repentance will free us from them. S. Aug. q. 25. W.
Ver. 32. Wilderness of Pharan, if this crime were committed soon after the murmuring of the people, or in some other part of the desert. This example tends to show the severity and extent of the former precept. The law had condemned the breaker of the sabbath to be put to death. But Moses consulted the Lord, to know in what manner; or perhaps there were some circumstances attending the offender, which extenuated or enhanced his crime. Some of the Rabbins have unjustly aspersed the character of Salphaad, as if he were the person, because it is said that he died in the desert in his own sin. C. xxii. 3. C.
--- Those who transgress with full knowledge, deserve to be severely chastised; (Lu. xii. 47,) and this is the more necessary, when the law has been lately promulgated, to restrain the insolent. H.
--- God generally makes an example of those who first transgress his laws, as he did our first parents, Cain, the Sodomites, the worshippers of the golden calf, &c. He punished thus the sacrilege of Nadab, the disobedience of Saul, the lie of Ananias and Saphira. Cajetan. D.
Ver. 38. Fringes. The Pharisees enlarged these fringes through hypocrisy, (Matt. xxiii. 5,) to appear more zealous than other men for the law of God. Ch.
--- Our Saviour conformed to this law. Luke viii. 44. Moses shews that these fringes were to be made for the cloak, which was square, and not for the tunic. Deut. xxii. 12. The colour, in S. Justin's time, was purple. Dial. It seems that the Phœnicians were accustomed to wear such fringes. Sidoniam picto chlamidem circumdata limbo. Æneid, iv. C.
--- God ordained that his people should be thus distinguished from other nations. T.
Ver. 39. Astray, (fornicantes). The eyes being left without restraint, easily fix upon dangerous objects, which captivate the heart, and lead to idolatry and the contempt of God's law. C.
--- We are also admonished to meditate on the law, and not follow our own thoughts or interpretations, so as to render it of no effect, in the regulation of our morals. H.