Ver. 2. Two trumpets. These were probably deemed sufficient at first, though in the days of Josue there were seven, (C.) and in those of Solomon 20,000. Josep. viii. 2. T.
--- They were used for all public assemblies. Josephus (iii. 11,) says, one was sounded to call the princes together, and the other to collect the people, which is not quite conformable to the Scriptures. C.
Ver. 4. Once. Heb. "with one trumpet." If both sounded together uniformly, the people assembled, v. 7.
Ver. 5. Longer, and with interruptions. Heb. teruha, "a signal," an alarm. Sept. "a loud cry of victory." Chal. "the taratantara," as Montanus translates, in allusion to the sound of the Hebrew word, (C.) or of the trumpets. When they were sounded with a variety of notes, or at different intervals, all knew that the camp was to break up, even though they had not been attentive to the motions of the cloud. Then Juda led the van. C. ii. 9. H.
Ver. 6. And, &c. Heb. "they shall blow an alarm for their marches." This must be referred to the camps on the west, which proceeded forward at the third sounding, as those on the north did at the fourth, according to the Sept. H.
Ver. 7. Sound. High mysteries must be reserved for the more learned. Theod. q. 15. W.
Ver. 8. Priests. God's officers and heralds. Curtius (3) observes, that among the Persians at day-break, the signal was given from the king's tent by sound of trumpet.
Ver. 9. Your God, who will reward your obedience with victory.
Ver. 10. And on. This serves to explain what kind of banquet was meant. On the festivals of religion, peace-offerings were made, of which those who were pure, might partake. H.
--- On solemn and extraordinary occasions, holocausts were also presented to God by the whole nation; and the trumpets announced those public rejoicings. 2 Par. v. 12. xxix. 26. C.
--- Months. The day when the moon first appeared, was a festival day among the Jews, (M.) or the first day of the month, while they observed the solar year.
Ver. 11. The second. The Samar. copy here places what we read, Deut. i. 7, 8; and it is certain that those words were addressed to Moses on this occasion, though it be not so certain that they were written by him in this place. C.
--- Of the month Jiar. The Hebrews had continued near Sinai a year and 20 days. Thence they went to the desert of Pharan, encamping first at the sepulchres of concupiscence, and at Haseroth, which were probably in that desert. Moses only specifies those encampments, where something memorable took place. He mentions none between Asiongaber and Cades, thought the length of the journey required many. Num. xi. 34. xiii. 1. C.
--- Perhaps he only reckons those among the stations where the people continued a considerable time.
Ver. 17. It. Hence it would appear, that part of the Levites followed Juda's division, which was preceded by the priests bearing the ark, (v. 33,) while the Caathites bore the sacred vessels after Ruben, (v. 21,) and were followed by Ephraim and Gad. But Calmet observes, that the Levites, and the whole camp of the Lord, came in the middle of the four great divisions, immediately after Ruben. C. ii. 9. 17. Salien thinks, that the ark and cloud led the way, and returned to the middle at the end of the journey, v. 36. H. T.
Ver. 21. Sanctuary, or holy vessels. They never set them down, till they arrived at the place where the tabernacle was to be fixed. Hebrew may be, "the sons of Caath set forward, bearing the vessels of the sanctuary, (C.) and they (the other Levites, v. 17,) set up the boards and curtains of the tabernacle till they arrived;" that so both the vessels and the ark might be placed in proper order. If the ark had to return into the middle of the camp from leading the way, as Salien insinuates; while it passed between the ranks of Juda, the Levites would have time to arrange every thing. H.
Ver. 29. Hobab; probably the brother of Sephora, and son of Raguel or Jethro, who had departed, leaving this son for a guide to Moses. Though God directed the marches of the Hebrews, he would not have them to neglect human means.
--- Kinsman. The Heb clothen, and Greek gambros, are not more determinate, as they signify either father, son, or brother-in-law (see Ex. ii. 18. C.); or in general a relation. S. Jerom. D.
Ver. 31. Guide, being well acquainted with the country, and consequently able to point out the best places for pasturage and for water, and to inform us what sort of people we are near. Heb. "thou shalt serve us for eyes." Sept. "as a senator." The Persians had officers who had the title of eyes and ears of the king. Brisson 1. Some suppose that Moses stood in no need of Hobab, having lived himself in that country 40 years, with Jethro; and that he only wished to keep his kinsman with him, that he might observe the true religion. He supposed at that time that they would presently obtain possession of Chanaan. But the sins of the people caused almost all to perish in the desert. Hobab probably accepted of the proposal, as we find the Cineans, descendants of Jethro, holding a portion of the land. C. Judg. i. 16. His posterity, the Rechabites, were noted for more than usual piety; and were the same with the Essenes, according to Serarius, and the first authors of a monastic life. Jerem. xxxv. T.
Ver. 33. Journey. During this time, we know not where they encamped. The first place that is specified is Tabera, or "the burning," (C. xi. 3. C.) which S. Jerom believes is the same place which was also called the sepulchres of concupiscence, (v. 34,) the 13th station, (H.) which is described above as the desert of Pharan. M.
--- Before them. See v. 17. H.
--- The Rabbins assert that there were two arks; one containing the writings of Moses going before, with the lawgiver, at the head of the army; and the other, carried by the Levites, in the centre. Drusius.
--- Calmet would rather translate "went in their presence;" that is, in the midst. The kings of Persia always marched in the centre, for greater safety, and that they might communicate their orders with more expedition, as well as to keep all in order, and observe what was doing. Xenophon. Cyrop. iv. and viii. Arian ii. and iii. C.
--- But the ark of God would probably go before the people, with the cloud, which hung over it.
Ver. 36. Host. Sept. "Bring, or turn back, (H.) O Lord, the thousands, the myriads in Israel." Some give the same sense to the Hebrew. C.
--- Prayers are composed, not only for the obtaining of good in general, but also for particular purposes. W.