Ver. 1. Blood. Nemrod established his power by shedding blood. Gen. x. Ninus, who built Ninive, and his successors were also bloody. After 1200 years the empire decayed under Sardanapalus, as historians agree. Yet it continued longer, according to the Scriptures and Ribera, till the Chaldees destroyed it, when it had subsisted about 1440 years. It was even possessed of great power after the return of the Jews from Babylon, as Eus. S. Aug. V. Bede, &c. write. W.
--- Depart. Sept. "be touched." H.
--- He continues the metaphor of the lion seizing its prey. Here the last chapter should end.
Ver. 4. Harlot. Ninive is cruel and impure, engaging others in idolatry and witchcraft. C.
--- Sold, forcing them to adopt her manners. Rom. vii. 14.
Ver. 7. Bemoan. Lit. "shake his head:" the latter words are not in Heb. H.
--- Some supply, move his lips: but head will answer as well. This is a sign of derision or of pity. Job xlii. 11. Mat. xxvii. 39. C.
Ver. 8. Populous Alexandria. No-Amon. A populous city of Egypt, destroyed by the Chaldeans, and afterwards rebuilt by Alexander, and called Alexandria. Others suppose No-Amon to be the same as Diospolis. Ch.
--- This seems preferable, as it was amidst waters and near the Mediterranean. Profane historians take little notice of it, as it was greatly reduced. Bochart fixes upon Memphis, others upon the temple of Ammon. But these were too remote from the sea. C.
--- The former was however near the Nile, (H.) which is sometimes called a sea. C.
--- S. Jerom thinks that Alexandria stood on the ruins of No. W.
--- Yet of this we have no proof. It is thought that Nahum alludes to the devastation caused by Nabuchodonosor. As Juda however was still in his kingdom, it seems rather that Assaraddon, (Is. xx.) or his predecessor, Sennacherib, (C.) laid waste this city. 4 K. xviii. 21. Usher, A. 3292.
AlexandriaAlexandria. In the Heb. No, which was the ancient name of that city,a populous city of Egypt, destroyed by the Chaldeans, which was afterwards rebuilt by Alexander the Great, and from his name called Alexandria. Others suppose No-Amon to be the same as Diospolis. Ch. --- Alexandria. In the Heb. No; which was the ancient name of the city, to which Alexander gave afterwards the name of Alexandria; (Ch.) or this city was built near Rachotes, the harbour. "Ammon of No" was rather Diospolis, (Ezec. xxx. 14. Sept.) in the Delta, north of Busiris. Ammon was the chief god adored at No. Nah. iii. 8. Sept. Alex. "I will revenge myself on Ammon, her son, on Egypt, or Pharao, and on them." H.
Ver. 10. Captivity. It was afterwards re-established and taken by Nabuchodonosor. C.
--- Fetters, or stocks. H.
Ver. 11. Drunk, and be chastised by God. Ezec. xxiii. 32.
--- From, to escape.
Ver. 14. Water. This was a necessary precaution. 2 Par. xxxii. 3.
--- Brick, to repair the breaches.
Ver. 17. Guards. Heb. "crowned" princes.
--- Little. Heb. "satraps are like great locusts, which," &c. S. Jerom has read (C.) toppic instead of taphseraic, (H.) which Sept. neglect. Thapsar denotes an officer. Jer. li. 27. C.
--- Of locusts. The young locusts. Ch.
AssyriaAssyria. The successors of Cyrus now ruled over those countries, (C.) which had belonged to the most potent Assyrian and Chaldean monarchs; and therefore the titles are given to them indiscriminately. T.
Ver. 19. Hidden. Heb. and Sept. "irremediable." H.
--- No one pities thy wound. Chal. C.