Ver. 1. Swearing. We are accountable for the sins of others, to which we are accessory, as appears from this and part of the following chapter. No distinction of persons is here noticed. If any one, therefore, be witness to another's promise, confirmed by oath, and, being cited to the bar, refuse to speak, he shall be guilty of sin, and offer the sacrifice proscribed (v. 6,) for all the preceding cases. Restitution must also be made to the injured person. M.
--- But others suppose that no sacrifice was allowed for such an obstinate wretch as when not answered when the judge swore or adjured him. He was liable to be put to death. The associate of the thief fell under the like punishment as the thief himself, when he would not reveal the theft to the judge. Prov. xxix. 24. Others again understand this swearing to mean blaspheming God. If the hearer do not reprehend him, he shall suffer as his accomplice. Orig. Philo.
--- Junius thinks that the neglect of fraternal correction, was to be expiated by the sacrifice prescribed for the sins of ignorance, concerning which Moses is treating. But it seems that the person here mentioned was to die, as the words he shall bear his iniquity, commonly denote. C. xix. 8. &c. C.
--- When perjury prejudiceth another's cause, we are bound to reveal what we know to the judge, if it can be done so as to avoid scandal. W.
--- Not. Hebrew editions read loa, instead of la, both here and in 34 other places; an irregularity unknown in some MSS. and to the Samaritan copy. Perhaps it may have been occasioned by lu, "to him," being of the same sound with la. Kennic.
Ver. 2. Beast. All wild beasts were deemed unclean; but domestic clean cattle, though slain, did not defile; (C.) while some of the unclean did, even alive. C. xi. 26. 31. H.
--- Fishes are comprised under the name reptiles; yet some were not unclean. C. xi. 9. The Sept. neglect reptiles, and put "the carcasses of impure abominations;" by which they probably mean dogs, and such things as the Egyptians adored. This verse does not regard those who had only touched something unclean, as such were to be purified at night, by washing their garments; but it refers to those who, having neglected that ordinance, had still ventured to touch something sacred, and were therefore required to offer the sacrifice, assom, (C.) as for an irreligious behaviour towards God. T.
Ver. 3. Of man, who may be in a state of legal uncleanness. If he neglect or forget to purify himself, he must offer a sacrifice, either such as he may choose, (S. Aug. q. 2.) or such as the priest may require. Lyran. C.
Ver. 4. Lips. This is necessary before he can be punished by men; but every secret promise binds before God. Tostat.
--- Evil or good: any thing whatsoever, whether favour or punishment, whether the completion of it be difficult or easy. C.
--- Thus parents sometimes foolishly swear that they will chastise their children unmercifully; libertines that they will live in luxuries as long as they have any money; ill-natured people that they will never speak to such a one, that they will murder, &c. To execute such promises, even confirmed by an oath, would be a double crime. Let them ask pardon of God for their rash oath. Philo.
--- Herod made his oath a pretext for killing the Baptist, deluding himself, perhaps, with a false interpretation of this law. H.
--- As such hasty oaths are easily forgotten, when the guilty person recollected himself, he was bound to confess his fault to the priest in the following manner, according to the Rabbins: Placing his hands between the horns of his victim, he shall say, "I beseech you, Lord, I have sinned; I have committed iniquity and prevarication; I have committed such a fault. I repent, I am filled with sorrow and confusion for having done so; I will relapse no more." These doctors teach, that without confession and sorrow no sacrifice will remit sin. C.
--- To preserve the secret of confession, the priests were ordered to eat the victims alone. Philo. &c. T.
Ver. 5. Let, &c. Heb. "and surely when he is guilty in one of these things, he shall confess that he hath sinned therein; (6.) and he shall bring his sin-offering unto the Lord, for his transgression," &c. Confession to the priest was requisite, before all the other sacrifices for sin. See Josep. iii. 10. H.
Ver. 9. Sin. The flesh belonged to the priest. C. vi. 26.
Ver. 11. Ephi, or a gomor, which is the tenth part of three pecks and three pints, English. Arbuthnot.
--- For sin, and therefore to shew how odious sin is to God, he will not allow any frankincense to be offered. M.
Ver. 12. Memorial. See C. ii. 2. At the end, the Heb. and Sept. add, "It is a sin-offering;" peccatum. C.
--- Hence the priests are said to eat the sins of the people, Osee iv. 8.
Ver. 15. The ceremonies: omitted in Heb. and Sept.
--- Sanctified, neglecting to pay the first-fruits; or, by mistake, eating any of the victims reserved for God, or for the priests.
--- Two sicles. S. Jerom seems to have read in the dual number, whereas the Hebrew pointed copies have sicles indefinitely; and the Rabbins understand two, when the word is plural and undetermined. Theodoret reads fifty, which some maintain is the ancient translation of the Sept. though it is not found in any of our copies. Hebrew may be rendered "a ram (or) according to thy estimation, sicles of silver." The particle or is sometimes understood. It is probable that when the fault was considerable, a ram was to be sacrificed, and restitution made of what was due with the fifth part besides; but if the fault was small, the priest determined how many sicles were to be presented for sacred purposes.
--- Sanctuary. See Ex. xxx. 13.
Ver. 17. Through ignorance. These words are not found in the Heb. or Sept.; but the context shews, that they must be understood. Some pretend that the ignorance here spoken of, is that by which a person doubts whether the thing which he touched was unclean or not. But we may explain these last verses as a recapitulation of what had been already ordered. C.
Ver. 18. Sin. If it were grievous, the priest required a more valuable victim, v. 15.
Ver. 19. Lord. Heb. "It is a victim for the sin which he has committed against the Lord." From this chapter, as well as from Num. v. 7, it is obvious that a special confession was necessary, not only for those who had fallen into the disorder of leprosy, which was a figure of sin, and often inflicted by God in punishment of it; but also, when they had given way to the smallest transgression against the commands and ceremonies of the Lord. H.
--- This custom is still observed by the Jews. Galatinus x. 3.