Ver. 1. Kings. Gr. "they sent to him ambassadors, with proposals for peace, saying: Behold we, the servants of Nabuchodonosor, the great king, lay before thee; use us as thou thinkest best," &c. These proposals were made by those on the sea-coast, from Sidon and Tyre to Ascalon, from whom Holofernes took "the choicest men," being received with honour, v. 10. H.
--- Syria, &c. These are not specified in the Greek.
--- Sobal, or Soba, (1 K. xiv. 47.) near Damascus, where Ptolemy (v.) places Samoulis.
--- Lybia seems too remote, and had not been attacked: some therefore would read Lycia, or Lygia, (Herod. vii. 72.) or rather Lydia, (C.) which Holofernes had "cut in pieces," according to the Greek. C. ii. 13. H.
Ver. 2. Great. This was his usual title. Dan. ii. 30. 4 K. xviii. 19. C.
--- Slavery. Yet they make an unconditional submission. H.
--- It is better for us to submit to servitude than to be slaughtered like our brethren. M.
Ver. 3. Sight, at thy disposal. Gen. xiii. 9. Prov. xv. 11.
Ver. 10. Lights. Torches were used to testify joy. 2 Mac. iv. 22.
Ver. 11. Though. Greek, "He demolished all their borders, and cut down their groves."
Ver. 13. Called. Gr. "Worshipped by all nations, and that all their tongues and tribes might call him god." H.
--- Behold to what lengths ambition may be carried. If he had only claimed a place among the other pagan deities, his title was as good as theirs. C.
--- He is a figure of Antichrist; for whom all heretics pave the way. 2 Thes. ii. W.
Ver. 14. Apamea, on the river Orontes, between which and the river Eleutherus, lay the Mesopotamia here mentioned.
--- Idumeans, or to "Rama," near Gabaa, which was on the north of Jerusalem; whereas Idumea lay far to the south. C.
--- Yet (H.) Gabaa may designate a mountainous country, as 1 K. vii. 1. (M.) and there is no reason why Idumea might not have felt the power of Holofernes, as well as Madian, &c. H.
--- The order of conquests in not observed, (M.) for while the commander-in-chief was in one place, his generals were dispersed into different parts. He had now advanced as far as Gabaa of Saul, (H.) when meditating a serious attack upon Egypt, he thought proper to concentrate his forces; little expecting to meet with such a check at Bethulia. C.
--- Gr. "He came to Esdrelon, near Dotaia, (or Dothaim, north of Sichem) which is opposite the great saw of Judea," or the range of mountains of Ephraim. C.
--- Old Vulg. "of Juda," dividing it from Idumea. The kings of Israel had fortified the defiles. 3 K. xv. 17.
Ver. 15. Took. Gr. "encamped between Gaba and Scythopolis, (Bethsan. Jos. xvii. 11.) and he was there a month of days, to collect all the burden of his army."