Ver. 1. Thirteenth. Gr. 18th.
--- Month. Nisan, in spring.
Ver. 2. Secret. Lit. "mystery." Tob. xii. 7. C.
--- Abditos principis sensus exquirere illicitum. Tacit. An. vi.
Ver. 3. Empire. "The thirst of empire and riches is an old and deep-rooted cause of making war." Sallust. Frag.
--- Gr. adds, "and they (counsellors) judged that all flesh must be destroyed of those who had not complied with his order." H.
--- God laughs at the vain designs of men. C.
Ver. 4. Armies. Gr. adds, "and the second after himself," in the kingdom. M.
--- Casaubon suspects that this drunkard was the king mentioned in history, as having lost the kingdom of Cappadocia, by attempting to introduce the dissolute feasts of Baccus. Polyb. xxxii. ap. Athen. x. 11.
--- He made his attack first upon this country, v. 13.
Ver. 5. Commandment. Gr. adds, he must demand "earth and water," as an acknowledgment of his dominion, and that all necessaries of life belonged to him. This custom prevailed in Persia. Herod. iv. 123. Polyb. xix. Brisson iii.
Ver. 9. Syria: part of which, it seems, had submitted. C.
--- Gr. "and corn for every man, in abundance," (H.) for fear it should be carried off in the countries which he invaded. M.
Ver. 11. Archers. Gr. adds, "a mixed multitude," not bearing arms. Ex. xii. 38.
Ver. 12. When. Gr. "and they proceeded from Ninive, three days' journey, to the plain of Bektileth," or Bagdania, in Cappadocia, between Mount Argee and Taurus. Strabo (xii.) assures us that Argee is the highest mountain in the country, from which the two seas of Cilicia and the Euxine may be seen. C.
Ver. 13. Melothus, or Melita, built by Semiramis, (Pliny vi. 3.) in the same country.
--- Tharsis, or Cilicia, peopled by the son of Javan.
--- Ishmahel, on the Euphrates, east of the Desert Arabia.
Ver. 14. Mambre. Gr. "Abrona, (C.) or Arbonai;" (H.) that is, from the river Chaboras to the Persian Gulph, or sea. C.
Ver. 15. Japheth, or Joppe, now Jaffa. Serarius.
--- Gr. "he cut in pieces all who opposed him; and he came to the borders of Japheth, which are on the south, over-against Arabia."
Ver. 16. Carried. Greek, "surrounded...and burnt their tents, and plundered their folds for cattle:" mandraV. H.
--- Madian lay to the east of the Dead Sea. C.
Ver. 17. Harvest. The rapidity of his conquests was astonishing, as all this had been done in six or seven weeks, v. 1. But Holofernes probably sent his lieutenants into different parts at the same time. C.
--- Caused. Gr. "he burnt all their fields, and destroyed their flocks and herds, and plundered their cities, and put to the sword all their young men."
Ver. 18. Land. Gr. adds, "on the sea-shore, in Sidon,...Ascalon," &c. H.