Ver. 1. These things. The solemn covenant by which the Israelites took possession of Chanaan, (H.) and the destruction of two cities of Jericho and Hai. C.
--- The kings on that side of the Jordan, and in all the neighbourhood, perceiving that, if the Israelites were suffered to attack them singly, in this manner, they would all presently lose their dominions and their lives. They resolved, therefore, to form a general league, offensive and defensive. H.
--- Beyond. Heb. "on the side of."
--- Mountains, on the south of Judea.
--- Sea. All the nations of Phoenicia, and the country of the Philistines, (C.) who had seized a part of the country, which belonged to the Israelites. Josue divided their territory among the people, though he did not live to make the conquest of it. H.
--- Libanus. Heb. "and in all the coasts of the great sea, over-against Libanus," as if the Phœnicians were alone meant. C.
Ver. 4. Provisions. By the alteration of a single letter, Heb. means, "they feigned themselves to be ambassadors." But the Chal. Syr. and Sept. agree with the Vulgate. C.
--- The Gabaonites were Hevites, though they are called by the more general name of Amhorrites, 2 K. xxi. 2. S. Jerom says that their city stood in the tribe of Benjamin; according to Josephus, 40 or 50 stadia north of Jerusalem. M.
--- They alone had the prudence to submit, (C.) being terrified and converted by the miracles of God. H.
--- Again. In the East, goat skins with the hair inwards, are used to carry wine.
Ver. 5. Patches. Heb. "spotted," or of different colours, like shoes worn out and spoiled with dirt.
--- Pieces. Heb, is translated, "dry, burnt, eaten, mouldy," &c. But it means fine thin bread, or wafers, (3 K. xiv. 3,) full of holes. The Israelites partook of this bread, which they would hardly have done if it had been mouldy. C.
Ver. 7. You. The Gabaonites addressed themselves to the first whom they met in the camp; and these made this remark to them before they were brought into the presence of Josue. The Israelites could make no league with the Chanaanites, as with equals, but only on condition that the latter should embrace the true religion, and acknowledge the dominion of the former. Grot. Ex. xxiii. 32. Deut. vii. 2.
Ver. 8. Servants. They did not mean to submit to servitude, but to make a league; otherwise they would not have needed to have recourse to such artifices. C.
--- But finding that no other terms could be procured, they were willing, at any rate, to save their lives. H.
Ver. 9. God. So the queen Saba came to Solomon, 3 K. x. The people of Gabaon being convinced that the God of Israel was the only true God, came to join themselves to his people, and to worship him. Serarius.
Ver. 10. Astaroth. They take care not to mention what had happened so recently at Jericho, lest they might be detected. C.
AstarothAstaroth (Deut 1:4, etc.), capital of Og, king of Basan: Tell Astâra, in Hauran.
BasanBasan (Deut 3:4), a region S. of the Plain of Damascus; at first the Kingdom of Og, then given to the tribe of Manasses.
Ver. 13. And almost. This is added by way of farther explanation of the Heb. "are become old." H.
Ver. 14. Victuals, to examine whether they were as old as they pretended; or they eat of them in sign of friendship. M.
--- Thus we find a feast generally accompanied the making of a league. Gen. xxvi. 30. and xxxi. 54. To betray a guest was deemed a heinous injury. Ps. liv. 15. Euripides.
--- Lord. By the high priest, clothed with the Urim and Thummim. C.
--- This remark shews that the Israelites had been guilty of some negligence. H.
--- Hence they were so easily deceived, being perhaps overjoyed that their friendship should be courted by so distant a nation. M.
--- The high priest was ordered to consult the Lord for Josue, at the door of the tabernacle. Ex. xxix. 42. Num. xxvii. 21. W.
Ver 15. Them. Were they bound to keep this promise? Some maintain the negative, as it was obtained by fraud, and therefore the Gabaonites leave themselves to the mercy of Josue, (v. 25,) who condemns them to perpetual servitude in the house of the Lord. He could not, however, have taken away their lives after what had passed. The error was not essential, but the people might have obtained the same conditions, if they had frankly told the truth. If we make a contract with a person who pretends to be of a nation to which he does not belong, the contract will hold good. The deceit of the Gabaonites was punished as it deserved. But God required that the conditions which were granted to them, should be diligently observed; and the family of Saul was severely punished, because he had slain some of them. 3 K. xxi. If the rest of the Chanaanites had changed their religion, and submitted to the Israelites, they might have been preserved, as Rahab, and so many others were, with whom the pious kings scrupled not to form alliances. C. xi. 19. Deut. xx. 10, &c. Masius. Bonfrere. C.
--- They were, however, obliged to yield possession of the land to the Israelites, and to renounce idolatry. The Gabaonites were willing to accede to these conditions, and therefore Josue might justly make a peace with them. M.
Ver. 16. Now. The five kings coming to attack the Gabaonites, these were forced to confess the truth, and to implore the assistance of the Israelites; (C.) or perhaps Rahab had given information who they really were. M.
--- Josue flew to their assistance in the night, and arrived the day following. C. x. 9.
BerothBeroth was one of the towns of the Gabaonites. It is not certain that the inhabitants retired, in consequence of the persecution of Saul; but they went to the territory of Geth, or to another town of Benjamin. 2 Esd. xi. 33. C.
CaphiraCaphara (Josh 9:17, etc.; Benjamin), also Caphira, Cephira: Kh. Kefîreh, W. of Nebi Samwîl.
Ver. 18. Israel. This is one reason why their lives were spared. But we have seen that they could not, with justice, have treated them as enemies, on their submitting to the conditions required, even if they had not engaged themselves by oath. The Gabaonites knew with what respect oaths were then kept by the Hebrews, even when they might have some specious pretext for dispensing themselves from their obligation. "People had not yet begun to neglect God, as they do in the present age; nor did they allow themselves the liberty of interpreting an oath, and accommodating the laws to their own humour, but they rather regulated their morals by their prescription." Nondum hæc quæ nunc tenet sæculum, negligentia Dei venerat, &c. Livy iii.
Ver. 21. Multitude. The common people, only considering their own private advantage, murmured at the conduct of their leaders, as they supposed that they were thus deprived of the plunder (C.) of many cities, and engaged in a dangerous war, with the five confederate kings. But this war was in no degree detrimental to them, as they knew they had to subdue the whole country; and as for the Gabaonites, they eased the people of Israel of a great burden, by doing the drudgery of the tabernacle, which otherwise must have fallen upon them. H.
--- These people were dispersed through the country, particularly in the cities of the priests and Levites, whose servants they were forced to be. Gabaon was allotted to the priests. In latter ages, many of these poor people being slain by Saul, &c. David was obliged to select some others, called Nathineans, or "people given," to supply their place, (C.) unless these were all the remnants of the Gabaonites. M.
--- Josephus (Bel. ii. 17,) speaks of the feast of Xylophoria, or "wood carrying," for the uses of the temple; and we read, (2 Esd. x. 34,) that lots were cast among the priests and the Levites, and the people, for the offering of wood, &c. which seems to insinuate that the ancient institution was then altered. Many authors speak of a fountain which furnished the temple with water, after the captivity, so that the service of the Gabaonites was not much wanted. We find no mention of them after that time.
Ver. 23. Curse. Heb. "you are cursed, and there shall be none of you freed from being bondmen;" (H.) you are a part of those nations which are under an anathema, and you deserve to be severely punished. C.
--- But we shall fulfil our engagements with you, only in punishment for your craftiness: (H.) you must submit to change your religion, (C.) which will be your greatest blessing, (H.) and to perform the meanest offices, which may be considered as a sort of curse. It is thought that some recompense was allowed the Gabaonites for their labour. Serarius, q. 17.
--- This sentence was probably pronounced at Galgal, (C.) though we might as well conclude that Josue would wait till he came to Gabaon, before he arraigned the people, as no doubt they would make the best of their way out of the camp, as soon as they had obtained their request. H.
--- Water. Slaves of the meanest condition were employed in these offices. Deut. xxix. 11. Athen. x. 22.
Ver. 24. Thereof. It seems they know not that any conditions would be admitted; and many interpreters have supposed, that none could be offered by the Israelites. See Deut. xx. 15.
Ver. 25. Thee. They acknowledge not only that Josue is too strong for them, but also that he has a right to punish them for their deceit. They accept, therefore, of whatever terms he is pleased to allow them. C.
Ver. 27. Chosen in the tabernacle and temple. M.
--- In these Gabaonites, of the race of Chanaan, the prediction of Noe, that he should serve Sem, was fulfilled. Gen. ix. W.