Ver 1. Over. Heb. and Sept. "clean, or entirely;" perhaps two million people, with all their possessions, had crossed the river on that day, the 10th of Nisan, leaving many of their brethren to cultivate and defend the eastern parts of the Jordan. H.
Ver. 2. Choose. Heb. "take," as C. iii. 12. Those twelve men were ordered to attend the ark, and to observe the miracle with care: these are chosen to carry the stones for the monuments. Salien.
--- Calmet supposes that they are the same people, and that the former verse might be translated, "the Lord had said." But this does not agree with the context. Heb. "and it came to pass, when all the people were clean passed over the Jordan, that the Lord spake." The former injunction was given before they entered the river. Heb. "the ark passeth...Now therefore take," &c. H.
--- One was selected from the tribe of Levi, and one from that of Joseph, so that all the twelve tribes were represented. M.
Ver. 3. Hard. The Heb. term is referred by some to the priests, "from the station of the priests, prepared, or standing firm," (C. iii. 17,) by others to the stones, which were to be prepared, hard, or exactly twelve. C.
--- The Sept. have take it in the latter sense, "twelve stones ready," or such as they might easily find, in the place where the priests had stood. They were of a flinty nature, (H.) that they might perpetuate the memory of this event. M.
Ver. 5. Of Israel, who had twelve sons. The same expression occurs Deut. xxxii. 8, and must be explained of the immediate sons of Jacob, without including those grandchildren who might be born before his death. H.
Ver. 9. Day. Some hence infer that Josue did not write this book. But surely if he wrote it towards the end of his life, he might well use this expression, (M.) as S. Matthew does to denote a shorter term. The twelve stones at Galgal, and in the bed of the Jordan, at Bethabara, (H.) were probably each placed apart. See Ex. xxiv. 4. M.
--- They were still to be seen in the days of S. Jerom. Such monuments were formerly very common, and very useful, to make a lasting impression upon the minds of a gross people. See Gen. xxviii. 18. Lev. xxvi. 1.
Ver. 10. To him. Moses had been dead forty days. But it seems this miraculous division of the Jordan had been revealed to him, and he had cautioned Josue to let slip no opportunity of attaching the people to God's service, by erecting monuments of religion, as he did on this occasion. C.
--- Haste. Though they were assured by the divine promise, they experienced a certain fear. Salien.
--- Even the most constant are liable to such impressions. Mat. xiv. 30.
Ver. 11. People, who passed over 2000 cubits lower down, and always kept the same distance, till they arrived at Galgal. C.
Ver. 13. Bands. Heb. "prepared for war passed over, before the Lord, unto battle, to the plains of Jericho." H.
--- These formed the van-guard.
--- Plains. Hebrew harboth, which is translated desert. Jer. lii. 8. A large plain, fit for pasturage, extended from the city to the Jordan, on the east side. C.
Ver. 14. In, &c. Josue recapitulates how this miracle established his authority, and how he was ordered to command the priests to come up from the midst of the Jordan, after the people had all got to the other side, and the stones were fixed, to denote where the ark had stood, like a wall, to hinder the waters from rushing down. H.
Ver. 19. Month of the ecclesiastical year. They had left Egypt on the 15th of Nisan, so that they had spent forty years, within five days, on their journey. C.
Ver. 20. Galgal. It received its name afterwards, C. v. 9. It lay in a direct line from Jericho to the Jordan eastwards, being ten stadia from the former, and fifty from the latter place. Josue had his camp here while he subdued the kings of Chanaan, (C.) as it had plenty of water and wood in its environs; (M.) though perhaps at this time, there were no houses. Saul was here recognized king of all Israel, 1 K. xi. 14. Tertullian (c. Marc. iv.) supposes that the twelve stones were placed on the ark, in arcam, which is not at all probable. C.
--- But they might be erected in its vicinity, and that may perhaps be the meaning of the author. H.
--- R. Levi says the stones were placed near the ark, that all Israel might see them thrice a year. Josephus believes that an altar was formed of them.
Ver. 25. Earth, particularly of Chanaan. This miracle tends to inspire the enemy with fear and consternation, and to confirm the faith and hope of the Israelites. The obstinacy of the former was thus rendered more inexcusable. C.