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NOW the lot of the children of Juda by their kindreds was this: From the frontier of Edom, to the desert of Sin southward, and to the uttermost part of the south coast.

Ver. 1.  Sin, or Sina, (v. 3,) bordering upon Idumea, where the city of Cades-barne was situated.  Num. xiii. 22.  It is now impossible to ascertain the precise situation of all the place mentioned in Scripture, as the land of Chanaan has been subject to so many changes.  But this inconvenience attends all ancient geography.  If those who attempt to unravel such labyrinths in profane authors, deserve praise, much more do those who do their utmost to explain the difficulties of sacred history.  It was once very necessary to have the limits of the tribes marked out with precision, that, at the return from captivity, they might occupy their own.  Now we may be satisfied if we can point out some of the places of the greatest importance.  The limits of the tribe of Juda are specified with particular care, on account of the dignity and power of that tribe, which was to give kings to all the land, and a Messias to the world, as well as to preserve the true religion.  The greatest part of the southern regions of Chanaan fell to their share, from the Dead Sea, by Idumea, to the Nile, and as far north as Jerusalem and the torrent of Cedron. C.



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2 Its beginning was from the top of the most salt sea, and from the bay thereof, that looketh to the south.

Ver. 2.  Bay, (lingua,) tongue.  Chal. "a promontory," or rather a gulph.  C.




3 And it goeth out towards the ascent of the Scorpion, and passeth on to Sina: and ascendeth into Cadesbarne, and reacheth into Esron, going up to Addar, and compassing Carcaa.

Ver. 3.  Scorpion.  A mountain infested with those creatures, by which people travelled from Idumea into Chanaan, leaving Sina on the left.



Cadesbarne

Cades-barne. All the distance between Horeb and the Jordan, by Mount Seir, on the road to Cades-barne, might have been traveled in eleven days' time, being about 300 miles; or the Hebrews were so long in going thither. Num. xxxiii. 17. C.

Addar

Addar, Ared or Hered. C.

Carcaa

Carcaa (Josh 15:3; S. Juda); W. of Cades.

4 And from thence passing along into Asemona, and reaching the torrent of Egypt: and the bounds thereof shall be the great sea, this shall be the limit of the south coast.

Ver. 4.  Asemona, which lies nearest to the river of Egypt of all the cities of Juda.  Num. xxxiv. 4.  C. xiii. 3.



Asemona

Asemona (Num 34:4; Josh 15:14; S. Juda): poss. 'Ain Qaseimeh, W. of Cades. --- Asemona, which lies nearest to the river of Egypt of all the cities of Juda. Num. xxxiv. 4. C. xiii. 3.

5 But on the east side the beginning shall be the most salt sea even to the end of the Jordan: and towards the north, from the bay of the sea unto the same river Jordan.

Ver. 5.  Jordan, where it discharges itself into the Dead Sea, or mixes its waters with the latter; which, as we observe, (C. v. 16,) does not take place for three miles.  H.

 

--- the north-western part of this sea belonged to Benjamin.




6 And the border goeth up into Beth-Hagla, and passeth by the north into Beth-Araba: going up to the stone of Boen the son of Ruben.

Ver. 6.  Stone.  It is not certain that this was a city.



Beth-Hagla

Beth Hagla (Josh 15:6, etc.; Benjamin): Qasr Hajlâ, S.E. of Jericho.

7 And reaching as far as the borders of Debara from the valley of Achor, and so northward looking towards Galgal, which is opposite to the ascent of Adommin, on the south side of the torrent: and the border passeth the waters that are called the fountain of the sun: and the goings out thereof shall be at the fountain Rogel.

Ver. 7.  Galgal.  Heb. Gilgal, may designate "the limits."  The valley of Achor lay south of Galgal.

 

--- Sun.  Heb. "Hen-Shemesh."  It was not "a city."

 

--- Rogel, "of the fuller."  This fountain was in the king's gardens, running eastward from Sion into the torrent of Cedron.  Joseph. vii. 11.  It was used to wash linen.  Rogel, signifies "to trample on," as they formerly washed their linen with their feet.  Nausicrae is represented in Homer doing so, in holes or basins, prepared for the purpose.  Odys. S.



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Adommin

Adommin (Ascent of; Josh 15:7; 18:18), limit of Benjamin and Juda; seems to correspond to Tal'at ed-Dûmm, on the road from Jerusalem to Jericho, a place notorious for the thieves who lurked round about (Lk 10:30-35).

8 And it goeth up by the valley of the son of Ennom on the side of the Jebusite towards the south, the same is Jerusalem: and thence ascending to the top of the mountain, which is over against Geennom to the west in the end of the valley of Raphaim, northward.

Ver. 8.  Ennom.  Hebrew, Ge-ben-Hinnom, or simply Ge-ennom, whence Gehanan has probably been formed.  In this vale, children were immolated to Moloc: the beating of drums, to hinder their lamentations from being heard, caused it perhaps to be called Tophet.  It was to the east of Jerusalem, (C.) inclining to the south.  H.

 

--- Northward.  The valley extends south to Bethlehem.  Joseph. vii. 10.   Her David gained a great victory, 2 K. v. 23.  C.

 

--- Woods.  This explanation is added by S. Jerom.  H.

 

--- The ark remained at this city for some time, 1 K. xv. 6.  It was 10 miles north of Jerusalem.




9 And it passeth on from the top of the mountain to the fountain of the water of Nephtoa: and reacheth to the towns of mount Ephron: and it bendeth towards Baala, which is Cariathiarim, that is to say, the city of the woods.

Baala

Baala, 1 (Josh 15:9, etc.; Juda) old name of Cariathiarim. — 2 (Josh 15:29, etc.; S. Juda), also Bala; perhaps Kh. Umm-Baghle, N.E. of Bersabee.

10 And it compasseth from Baala westward unto mount Seir: and passeth by the side of mount Jarim to the north into Cheslon: and goeth down into Bethsames, and passeth into Thamna.

Ver. 10.  Bethsames, "the house of the sun," was at the same distance, westward.  Here the sight of the ark proved so fatal to 50,070 of the inhabitants, 1 K. vi. 19.  C.



Bethsames

Bethsames, 1 (Josh 15:10, etc.; Dan); also Bethsemes (1Chron 6:59): 'Ain-Shems, 15 m. W. of Jerusalem. — 2 (Josh 19:22; Issachar), possibly 'Ain esh-Shemsiyeh, S. of Beisân; or Kh. Shemsin, S. of the Lake of Tiberias. — 3 (Josh 19:38; Nephtali), perhaps Kh. Shem'â (?), W. of Sãfed. --- Bethsames was in the tribe of Dan, (C.) but belonging to the king of Juda. --- Bethsames, "the house of the sun". Here the sight of the ark proved so fatal to 50,070 of the inhabitants, 1 K. vi. 19. C.

Cheslon

Cheslon (Josh 15:10; N.W. Juda). Keslâ.

Baala

Baala, 1 (Josh 15:9, etc.; Juda) old name of Cariathiarim. — 2 (Josh 15:29, etc.; S. Juda), also Bala; perhaps Kh. Umm-Baghle, N.E. of Bersabee.

11 And it reacheth northward to a part of Accaron at the side: and bendeth to Sechrona, and passeth mount Baala: and cometh into Jebneel, and is bounded westward with the great sea.

Baala

Baala, 1 (Josh 15:9, etc.; Juda) old name of Cariathiarim. — 2 (Josh 15:29, etc.; S. Juda), also Bala; perhaps Kh. Umm-Baghle, N.E. of Bersabee.

Accaron

Accaron, the most northern city of the Philistian principalities, (H.) attributed to Juda or Dan, though neither held it for any length of time. Beelzebub was chiefly adored here, 4K. i. 2.

12 These are the borders round about of the children of Juda in their kindreds.


13 But to Caleb the son of Jephone he gave a portion in the midst of the children of Juda, as the Lord had commanded him: Cariath-Arbe the father of Enac. which is Hebron.

Ver. 13.  Arbe, who was the father, and the greatest man of the race of Enac.  C. xiv. 15.  H.




14 And Caleb destroyed out of it the three sons of Ehac, Sesai and Ahiman. and Tholmai of the race of Enac.

Ver. 14.  Enac.  These three giants were at Hebron when the spies came thither.  Num. xiii.



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15 And going up from thence he came to the inhabitants of Dabir, which before was called Cariath-Sepher, that is to say, the city of letters.

Ver. 15.  Letters, as the Sept. render it.  S. Jerom adds this interpretation.  H.

 

--- It means literally "the city of the book."  Senna, may also mean "instruction," v. 49.  Here probably a famous school was kept, before the arrival of the Israelites; or the archive of the nation might be deposited among these giants, as the Chal. Kiriat-arche, "the city of the library, or archives," insinuates.  Bochart. Phaleg. ii. 17.



Dabir

Dabir, 1 (Josh 11:22, etc.; S. Juda) the same as Cariathsenna and Cariathsepher: most prob. Darherîyeh, S.S.W. of Hebron. — 2 (Josh 15:7; N. Juda): poss. Toghret ed-Debr. --- Dabir, which was formerly called Cariath sepher, "the city of the book," (C. xv. 15,) or of Senna, (ib. 45,) near Hebron.

16 And Caleb said: He that shall smite Cariath-Sepher, and take it, I will give him Axa my daughter to wife.

Ver. 16.  Wife.  Parents had full authority to do this.  Saul promised his daughter to the person who should overcome Goliah.  Something was required by way of dowry for the lady.  Grot.  1 K. xvii. 25.




17 And Othoniel the son of Cenez, the younger brother of Caleb, took it: and he gave him Axa his daughter to wife.

Ver. 17.  Brother.  It is not clear in the original whether this relates to Cenez or to Othoniel, (H.) as younger is not found in Heb. but it is in the Syr. Sept. and Judg. i. 13.  Many think that Cenez was the brother of Caleb.  If Othoniel had been brother of the latter, they say he could not have legally married his niece.  C.

 

--- But though Moses forbids a nephew to marry his aunt, it does not follow that uncles could not take their nieces to wife, as they would be still the head; (W.) whereas there would be a sort of indecency for a nephew to command his aunt.  The Jews allow these marriages, while the Samaritans condemn them.  Lev. xviii. 14.  In confirmation of the Vulg. we may remark, that Cenez is never (C.) clearly (H.) represented as the brother of Caleb; and there is no inconvenience in asserting that Othoniel was the brother of the latter, whether we take this word to denote a near relation, or strictly.  In the former supposition, Othoniel might marry his cousin, Axa, the daughter of Caleb, while he himself was descended from Cenez, the brother of Jephone.  C.

 

--- But if we take the word strictly, as the remark of his being younger brother, both here and Judg. i. 13. may seem to imply, we must then allow that Othoniel followed the custom of his nation, (H.) in marrying his niece.  M.

 

--- Sept. here make him "the younger son of Cenez, who was brother of Caleb;" and in the Book of Judges, they say, "Gothoniel, the son of Cenez, (and) the younger brother of Caleb, first made himself master of it, under him;" as if Othoniel and Caleb had been born of the same mother, but of a different father, unless we suppose that they were only nearly related, and the former much less advanced in years; so that he might will marry the daughter of Caleb and afterwards become a judge and deliverer of Israel.  Judg. iii. 9.  See Masius.  Bonfrere.  H.


18 And as they were going together, she was moved by her husband to ask a field of her father, and she sighed as she sat on her ass. And Caleb said to her: What aileth thee?

Ver. 18.  Was moved; as the Syr. Arab. Junius, &c. represent the matter.  Others render the Heb. in a different sense: "she moved him to ask of her father a field, and she lighted off her ass, and Caleb said unto her," &c. which seems very abrupt, as she herself is represented as soliciting for the favour in the next verse, instead of her husband.  The Chaldee supposes that she was restrained by natural modesty, from preferring the petition; but when Othoniel refused to do it, or was denied what he requested, she took courage and asked herself.  The sense of the Vulgate seems more natural, (C.) as the husband might easily suppose that she would have greater influence with her father.  H.

 

--- Sighed.  The original term is found only in this history, and in that of the death of Sisara.  Judg. iv. 21.  Sept. "she cried out."  Others translate, "she remained fixed," (M.) or "she waited sitting on the ass," till she had obtained her request.


19 But she answered: Give me a blessing: thou hast given me a southern and dry land, give me also a land that is watered. And Caleb gave her the upper and the nether watery ground.

Ver. 19.  Blessing, or "favour, present," &c.  1 K. xxv. 27.  C. --- And dry.  This is a farther explanation of southern; as the lands in that situation being exposed to the sun-beams, in Palestine, are often destitute of sufficient moisture, which is the cause of the sterility of Mount Hebal, &c.

 

--- Watery ground.  Heb. "springs of water, and he gave her the upper springs and the lower springs."  Aquila leaves springs untranslated.  H.

 

--- Golgot.  Sept. "Golathmaim, and the upper Golath," &c.  Sym. translates "possession on the high places."  Judg. i.  C.

 

--- Caleb had probably given his daughter a part of the mountain.  He now grants her also some field that lay lower down, and was better supplied with water on all sides (H.) by springs above, and cisterns below.


20 This is the possession of the tribe of the children of Juda by their kindreds.


21 And the cities from the uttermost parts of the children of Juda by the borders of Edom to the south, were Cabseel and Eder and Jagur,

Cabseel

Cabseel (Josh 15:21; S. Juda).

22 And Cina and Dimona and Adada,

Adada

Adada (Josh 15:22; S. limit of Juda): 'Ad'ada, E. of Bersabee.

23 And Cades and Asor and Jethnam,

Cades

Cades, not far from Mount Hor, on the confines of Idumea, v. 22. and Jud. xi. 16. C. --- Misphat, or of judgment and contradiction, because there the Hebrews contended with Moses and Aaron: it was afterwards called Cadez. Num. xx. 11. --- Cades. The desert of Pharan, or of Cades, is the same. H. --- Sin, or Tsin. Cades is another name of the same desert. Near the city of Cades-barne, the Hebrews encamped a long while, and had plenty of water; but here they murmured for want of it, and Mary departed this life. C. xx. C.

Asor

Asor 1- (Josh 11:1, etc.; Nephtali), also Hasor, Heser. Egyptian: Huzar: the site seems to have been in the neighbourhood of L. Hûleh, but its exact location is the object of great discussions. 2- (Josh 15:23; S. Juda). perhaps connected with Jebel Hâdhîreh, N.E. of Cades. 3- (Josh 15:25; S. Juda). 4- (Neh 11:33, Benjamin), poss. Kh. Hazzûr, N. of Jerusalem. --- Asor, the capital of Jabin. C. xi. 1. --- Asor, near lake Semechon. Jos. xi. 1. Gr. "Nasor," erroneously. C.

24 Ziph and Telem and Baloth,

Baloth

Baloth (Josh 15:24; S. Juda), poss. identical with Baalath Beer Ramath.

25 New Asor and Carioth, Hesron, which is Asor.

Ver. 25.  New Asor, to distinguish it from the capital of Jabin, in the north.  This was dependent on Ascalon.  Euseb.

 

--- Heb. "and Hazor, Hadatta, and (or) Kerioth ("the towns") of Hezron, which is Hazor."  The Sept. only specify the same town of Asor by different names.  There was one towards Arabia.  Num. xi. 35.



Asor

Asor 1- (Josh 11:1, etc.; Nephtali), also Hasor, Heser. Egyptian: Huzar: the site seems to have been in the neighbourhood of L. Hûleh, but its exact location is the object of great discussions. 2- (Josh 15:23; S. Juda). perhaps connected with Jebel Hâdhîreh, N.E. of Cades. 3- (Josh 15:25; S. Juda). 4- (Neh 11:33, Benjamin), poss. Kh. Hazzûr, N. of Jerusalem. --- Asor, the capital of Jabin. C. xi. 1. --- Asor, near lake Semechon. Jos. xi. 1. Gr. "Nasor," erroneously. C.

Carioth

Carioth, 1 (Josh 15:25; S. Juda), rather Carioth Hesron, the birthplace of Judas, "the man of Carioth": Kh. el-Qureitein, S. of Hebron. — 2 (Amos 2:2; Jer 48:24, 41; Moabite Stone, 1. 13; Moab): prob. Er-Rabbâh. --- Carioth. Sept. "the cities." Carioth has this meaning, but is was also the name of a great city. Jer. xlviii. 24. H.

26 Amam, Sama and Molada,


27 And Asergadda and Hassemon and Bethphelet,

Bethphelet

Bethphalet (Josh. 15:27; Neh. 11:26; S. Juda). Also Bethphelet.

Asergadda

Asergadda (Josh 15:27; S. Juda).

28 And Hasersual and Bersabee and Baziothia,

Ver. 28.  Bersabee, noted for the residence of Abraham, &c.  It is attributed to Simeon, (C. xix. 2,) with some other of these towns, as the two tribes lived intermixed, and some changes might be made in the first regulation, to bring things to a greater equality, and as circumstances might require.



Baziothia

Baziothia (Josh 15:28; S. Juda), an unidentified city in the neighbourhood of Bersabee unless the text is Corrupt

29 And Baala and Jim and Esem,

Baala

Baala, 1 (Josh 15:9, etc.; Juda) old name of Cariathiarim. — 2 (Josh 15:29, etc.; S. Juda), also Bala; perhaps Kh. Umm-Baghle, N.E. of Bersabee.

30 And Eltholad and Cesil and Harma,

Cesil

Cesil (Joel, xv, 30), a mistaken form for Bethul.

31 And Siceleg and Medemena and Sensenna,

Ver. 31.  Siceleg.  The Philistines kept possession of it till king Achis gave it to David; and it continued afterwards the property of the kings of Juda.




32 Lebaoth and Selim and Aen and Remmon: all the cities twenty-nine, and their villages.

Ver. 32.  Villages.  Twenty-nine of the former cities were of greater note; the six, or taking in the three belonging to Caleb, the nine others which are mentioned, (C.) were only villages.  M.

 

--- Others think that these nine towns are not numbered here, because they were allotted to the tribe of Simeon.  C. xix. 2, &c.




33 But in the plains: Estaol and Sarea and Asena,

Ver. 33.  Plains.  Heb. Schephela, near Eleutheropolis.  Chap. x. 40.

 

--- Estaol was afterwards given to Dan.  Samson was buried near it and Sarea.  Judg. xvi.




34 And Zanoe and Engannim and Taphua and Enaim,


35 And Jerimoth and Adullam, Socho and Azeca,

Azeca

Azeca (Josh 10:10, etc.; plain of Juda), in the environs of Tell Zakarîyah. --- Azeca, about 15 miles south of Jerusalem.

36 And Saraim and Adithaim and Gedera and Gederothaim: fourteen cities, and their villages.

Ver. 36.  Fourteen.  One of those mentioned above, may have been a village.  M.

 

--- Others think that Enaim may be the name of a fountain, near which perhaps Juda met Thamar.  Gen. xxxviii. 14.




37 Sanan and Hadassa and Magdalgad,


38 Delean and Masepha and Jecthel,


39 Lachis and Bascath and Eglon,

Bascath

Bascath (Josh 15:39; plain of Juda), somewhere around Lachis.

40 Chebbon and Leheman and Cethlis,

Cethlis

Cethlis (Josh 15:40; plain of Juda).

Chebbon

Chebbon (Josh 15:40; Juda): El-Qubeibeh, S.W. of Eleutheropolis.

41 And Gideroth and Bethdagon and Naama and Maceda: sixteen cities, and their villages.

Bethdagon

Bethdagon. "The temple of Dagon, or of the fish," different from the town of Juda. C. xv. 41.

42 Labana and Ether and Asan,

Asan

Asan (Josh 15:42, etc.; Juda): poss. 'Aseileh between Bersabee and Hebron. --- Asan, perhaps Jethnan, or Ain. Jos. xv. 23. and xxi. 15. Syriac adds Ethra. C.

43 Jephtha and Esna and Nesib,


44 And Ceila and Achzib and Maresa: nine cities, and their villages.

Ver. 44.  Ceila, which David took from the Philistines, and were he was nearly betrayed into the hands of Saul, 1 K. xxiii.  Habacuc was buried here, on the road between Eleutheropolis and Hebron.



Ceila

Ceila (Josh 15:44, etc.; middle of Juda): Kh. Qîlâ, N.W. of Hebron. --- Ceila was about seven miles from Hebron, and as many from Eleutheropolis. S. Jerom.

45 Accaron with the towns and villages thereof.

Accaron

Accaron, the most northern city of the Philistian principalities, (H.) attributed to Juda or Dan, though neither held it for any length of time. Beelzebub was chiefly adored here, 4K. i. 2.

46 From Accaron even to the sea: all places that lie towards Azotus and the villages thereof.

Accaron

Accaron, the most northern city of the Philistian principalities, (H.) attributed to Juda or Dan, though neither held it for any length of time. Beelzebub was chiefly adored here, 4K. i. 2.

Azotus

Azotus, or as the Heb. writes, Asdod, on the Mediterranean, was noted for the temple of Dagon, (1 K. v. 1,) which Jonathas destroyed. Joseph. xxii. 8. C.

47 Azotus with its towns and villages. Gaza with its towns and villages, even to the torrent of Egypt, and the great sea that is the border thereof.

Azotus

Azotus, or as the Heb. writes, Asdod, on the Mediterranean, was noted for the temple of Dagon, (1 K. v. 1,) which Jonathas destroyed. Joseph. xxii. 8. C.

48 And in the mountain Samir and Jether and Socoth,


49 And Danna and Cariath-senna, this is Dabir:

Dabir

Dabir, 1 (Josh 11:22, etc.; S. Juda) the same as Cariathsenna and Cariathsepher: most prob. Darherîyeh, S.S.W. of Hebron. — 2 (Josh 15:7; N. Juda): poss. Toghret ed-Debr. --- Dabir, which was formerly called Cariath sepher, "the city of the book," (C. xv. 15,) or of Senna, (ib. 45,) near Hebron.

50 Anab and Istemo and Anim,

Anim

Anim (Josh 15:50; mount. of Juda): Kh. Ghuwein.

Anab

Anab (Josh 11:21): mount. of Juda, once belonging to the Enacim; Kh. 'Anab, S. of Beit-Jibrîn.

51 Gosen and Olon and Gilo: eleven cities and their villages.


52 Arab and Ruma and Esaan,

Arab

Arab (Josh 15:52; mount. of Juda), also Arbi (2Sam 23:25): Kh. er-Râbîyeh, W. of Ziph.

53 And Janum and Beththaphua and Apheca,

Beththaphua

Beththaphua (Josh 15:53; mount, of Juda), Taffuh, W. of Hebron.

Apheca

Apheca 1- (Josh 13:4): Afkâ, N.E. of Beirût. 2- (Josh 15:53; mount. of Juda), Egyptian: Apuken: prob. Fuqîn, W. of Bethlehem

54 Athmatha and Cariath-Arbe, this is Hebron and Sior: nine cities and their villages.


55 Maon and Carmel and Ziph and Jota,

Ver. 55.  Carmel.  Not where Elias dwelt, but a city and mountain 10 miles east of Eleutheropolis.  Nabal rendered it famous by his imprudence, (1 K. xxv.) and Saul by a triumphal arch, 1 K. xv. 12.



Carmel

Carmel. Not where Elias dwelt, but a city and mountain 10 miles east of Eleutheropolis. Nabal rendered it famous by his imprudence, (1 K. xxv.) and Saul by a triumphal arch, 1 K. xv. 12. --- Carmel, so famous for the miracles of Elias, 3 K. xviii. 20. Josephus (Bel. ii. 17,) places it 120 stadia south of Ptolemais. This range of mountains extended northward through the tribes of Issachar and of Zabulon. Pliny (v. 17,) speaks of a promontory and of a town of this name. Here also the god Carmel was adored, having an altar, but no temple or image, as the ancients had decreed. Nec simulacrum Deo aut templum, (sic tradidere majores) ara tantum et reverentia. Tacit. Hist. ii. 78. --- Vespasian consulted the priest Basilides. Carmel means "the vineyard of the Lord," or the excellent vineyard, &c. It was so rich and beautiful as to become proverbial. The spouse compares the head of his beloved to Carmel. C. vii. 5. Isaias (xxxii. 15,) foretels that the deserts shall be equal to Carmel. It was covered with wood and fruit. S. Jerom in Isai. x. 18. Jer. iv. 26. The city, which was built upon this mountain, and which Pliny calls by the same name, was formerly styled Ecbatana. The oracle had denounced to Cambyses that he should die at Ecbatana, and he concluded that the city of Media was meant; but it was "that of Syria," says Herodotus, (iii. 64,) where he died.

56 Jezrael and Jucadam and Zanoe,


57 Accain, Gabaa and Thamna: ten cities and their villages.

Accain

Accain (Josh 15:57): Mtn. of Juda, Kh. Yâqîn.

58 Halhul, and Bessur, and Gedor,

Ver. 58.  Bessur.  About 20 miles from Jerusalem, fortified by Simon, 1 Mac. xiv. 33.  It is there said to be only five stadia distant from that city.  But the Alexandrian copy reads five schœnus, or cords, each of which consisted of at least 30 stadia.  Cellarius.



Bessur

Bessur (Josh 15:58). See Bethsur. --- Bessur. About 20 miles from Jerusalem, fortified by Simon, 1 Mac. xiv. 33. It is there said to be only five stadia distant from that city. But the Alexandrian copy reads five schœnus, or cords, each of which consisted of at least 30 stadia. Cellarius.

59 Mareth, and Bethanoth, and Eltecon: six cities and their villages.

Ver. 59.   Eltecon: given afterwards to the tribe of Dan, (C. xix. 44,) and then to the Levites.  C. xxi. 13.  The Alex. Sept. here add many cities, which are omitted in Heb.  C.

 

--- "Theco and Ephrata, (this is Bethlehem) and Phagor, and Artam, and Koulon, and Tatami, and Sores, and Karem, and Gallim, and Baither, and Manocho, eleven cities and their villages."  H.  See S. Jer. in Mic. v. 1.  C.  Deut. xxvii. 4.

 

--- Dr. Wall says, "these cities were doubtless in the Heb. copy of the Sept." and "they are of such a nature, that it is scarcely possible to think them an interpolation."  The former critic thinks "the omission in the Heb. was occasioned by the word villages occurring immediately before, and at the end of the words thus omitted; and indeed  the same word occurring in different places, has been the cause of many and great omission in the Heb. MSS.  He thinks it less likely that the Jews should have designedly omitted Bethlehem here, because that place is mentioned as belonging to Juda, in several other parts of Scripture."  But is Ephrata ever joined with it, except in this passage, and in the text of Micheas?  "And, therefore, though this remarkable omission was probably owing, at first, to some transcriber's mistake, its not being reinserted might be owing to the reason specified by S. Jerom, out of malice to Christianity."  Kennicott, 2 Diss. 56.

 

--- Reland is astonished to find a place which was to be rendered so famous by the birth of the Messias, not enumerated in this place among the cities of Juda.  But he observes that it is found in the Alexandrian version, p. 643.  Palest.

 

--- S. Jerom will not decide absolutely whether the Jews have erased these cities, or the Sept. have inserted them.  As he undertook to translate the Hebrew as he found it, he has not admitted these cities into his translation, though there seems to be abundant reason for supposing that they are genuine.  H.



Bethanoth

Bethanoth (Josh 15:59; mount. of Juda), Kh. Beit'Anun, N.E. of Hebron.

60 Cariathbaal, the same is Cariathiarim, the city of woods, and Arebba: two cities and their villages.


61 In the desert Betharaba, Meddin and Sachacha,


62 And Nebsan, and the city of salt, and Engaddi: six cities and their villages.

Ver. 62.  Salt.  Bonfrere supposes it is Segor, which was preserved for Lot's sake.

 

--- Engaddi, which was famous for its balm and palm-trees, in the desert of Jericho.  Solin. xxxv.

 

--- We may here remark that in the preceding catalogues, many towns are repeated like Zanoe, (v. 34. and 56,) and others are left out.  Some are also afterwards attributed to other tribes.  Hence some have inferred that alterations have been made in the original copies.  But we may rather believe that the reason of these variations is, because the cities were parceled out among the 10 families of Juda, (1 Par. ii. 3,) as was the case in the distribution of land to Manasses; (C. xvii. 2,) and hence the same cities were sometimes given to two different families.  They are also attributed to different tribes, because many families of the respective tribes dwelt in them.  The priests, for example, lived along with their brethren of other tribes.  C.




63 But the children of Juda could not destroy the Jebusite that dwelt in Jerusalem: and the Jebusite dwelt with the children of Juda in Jerusalem until this present day.

Ver. 63.  Jerusalem.  The Benjamites claimed the northern part of this city; (H.) and they did not drive out the Jebusites, but lived with them, Judges i. 21.  The tribe of Juda had burnt a part of the city.  Judg. i. 8.  But it seems the Jebusites kept their hold, (C.) at least in the citadel, (H.) and frequently in the lower town, till they were entirely banished by David, 2 K. v. 7.  See Judg. xix. 11.  In latter times, the Jews considered this place as the common city of all the nation, to which none of the tribes had an exclusive right; and hence, in the last siege, there was no head, and all the Jews were admitted without examination.  Josephus. Bel. iv. 5, &c.  C.

 

--- Day, and even till the reign of David.  The author of this observation must have lived before that period.  Josue might have made this and may other similar remarks, when he finished this work, towards the end of his life.  H.




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