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THESE are the kings, whom the children of Israel slew and possessed their land beyond the Jordan towards the rising of the sun, from the torrent Arnon unto mount Hermon, and all the east country that looketh towards the wilderness.

Ver.  1.  Wilderness.  Heb. "all the plain country (Arabia) on the east."



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2 Sehon king of the Amorrhites, who dwelt in Hesebon, and had dominion from Aroer, which is seated upon the bank of the torrent Arnon, and of the middle part in the valley, and of half Galaad, as far as the torrent Jaboc, which is the border of the children of Ammon.

Ver. 2.  Galaad.  Sehon occupied from the middle of the torrent Arnon, as far as half of the mountains of Galaad, and the torrent Jaboc.  C.

 

--- Og possessed the other half of the mountains northward, while the Ammonites had the eastern parts.  H.



Aroer

Aroer 1- (Deut 2:36, etc.; Moab. S., l. 26): 'Arâ'ir, N. of the Arnon river. 2- (Judg 11:33), "over against Rabba", i.e. E. of Ammân. 3- (1Sam 30:28; S. Juda), Egyptian: Har-horar: 'Ar'ârah, E.S.E. of Bersabee. --- Aroer, upon the Arnon, belonged to the tribe of Gad.

3 And from the wilderness, to the sea of Ceneroth towards the east, and to the sea of the wilderness, which is the most salt sea, on the east side by the way that leadeth to Bethsimoth: and on the south side that lieth under Asedoth, Phasga.

Ver. 3.  Bethsimoth is ten miles from Jericho, (Eus.) near the Dead Sea, in the plains of Moab.  C.

 

--- Phasga. Asedoth lay at the foot of this mountain, being well supplied with water.  Subjacet Acedoth usque Phasga, the southern limits of Sehon's dominions had "abundance of springs, as far as Phasga."  H.



Bethsimoth

Bethsimoth is ten miles from Jericho, (Eus.) near the Dead Sea, in the plains of Moab. C.

4 The border of Og the king of Basan, of the remnant of the Raphaims who dwelt in Astaroth, and in Edrai, and had dominion in mount Hermon, and in Salecha, and in all Basan, unto the herders

Ver. 4.  Og.  See Num. xxi. 33.  Deut. iii. 11.


Basan

Basan (Deut 3:4), a region S. of the Plain of Damascus; at first the Kingdom of Og, then given to the tribe of Manasses.

Astaroth

Astaroth (Deut 1:4, etc.), capital of Og, king of Basan: Tell Astâra, in Hauran.

5 Of Gessuri and Machati, and of half Galaad: the borders of Sehon the king of Hesebon.


6 Moses the servant of the Lord, and the children of Israel slew them, and Moses delivered their land in possession to the Rubenites, and Gadites, and the half tribe of Manasses. 7 These are the kings of the land, whom Josue and the children of Israel slew beyond the Jordan on the west side from Baalgad in the held of Libanus, unto the mount, part of which goeth up into Seir: and Josue delivered it in possession to the tribes of Israel, to every one their divisions,

Ver. 7.  Seir.  The same expression occurs, C. xi. 17.  Heb. "from Baalgad, in the vale of Libanus, even unto Mount Halak, that goeth up to Seir."  H.

 

--- Halak means, "bald or naked."  It is not know what mountain it denotes.  Josue, (C.) or the Israelites, (H.) conquered "all the country beyond the Jordan, on the north from Baalgad, at the foot of Libanus, and from Hermon, where these mountains meet, as far as the mountains of separation," which divide the country of Chanaan from that of Seir, on the south of Judea.  C.

 

--- Baalgad was situated on the north western borders of this territory, not of the Jordan.  H.



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8 As well in the mountains as in the plains and the champaign countries. In Asedoth, and in the wilderness, and in the south was the Hethite and the Amorrhite, the Chanaanite and the Pherezite, the Hevite and the Jebusite.

Ver. 8.  Asedoth, or "in the springs," or valleys, v. 3.




9 The king of Jericho one: the king of Hai, which is on the side of Bethel, one:

Bethel

Bethel, 1 see s.v. — 2 (Josh 12:16; Simeon) another name for Bethul. --- Bethel, as it was called in the days of Moses, being the ancient Luza. C. --- Bethel signifies the house of God, being honoured with two altars. H.

10 The king of Jerusalem one, the king of Hebron one.


11 The king of Jerimoth one, the king of Lachis one,


12 The king of Eglon one, the king of Gazer one,


13 The king of Dabir one, the king of Gader one,

Dabir

Dabir, 1 (Josh 11:22, etc.; S. Juda) the same as Cariathsenna and Cariathsepher: most prob. Darherîyeh, S.S.W. of Hebron. — 2 (Josh 15:7; N. Juda): poss. Toghret ed-Debr. --- Dabir, which was formerly called Cariath sepher, "the city of the book," (C. xv. 15,) or of Senna, (ib. 45,) near Hebron.

14 The king of Herma one, the king of Hered one,

Ver. 14.  Herma, "a curse," where the Israelites defeated king Arad.  Num. xiv. 45. and xxi. 3.


15 The king of Lebna one, the king of Odullam one,

Ver. 15.  Odullam, ten miles east of Eleutheropolis, and famous for the retreat of David.  C.




16 The king of Maceda one, the king of Bethel one,

Ver. 16.  Bethel.  Josue perhaps slew the king, but did not take the city.  Judg. i. 22.  M.



Bethel

Bethel, 1 see s.v. — 2 (Josh 12:16; Simeon) another name for Bethul. --- Bethel, as it was called in the days of Moses, being the ancient Luza. C. --- Bethel signifies the house of God, being honoured with two altars. H.

17 The king of Taphua one, the king of Opher one,


18 The king of Aphec one, the king of Saron one,

Ver. 18.  Aphec.  A place of this name was in the tribe of Aser, another in that of Juda.

 

--- Saron.  Heb. "Lasharon;" probably Sarona, (Acts ix. 35,) or a canton near Joppe.  Euseb.



Aphec

Aphec 1- (Josh 12:18; N.W. Juda): poss. Merj-Fikieh (Conder). 2- (Josh 19:30, etc.; Aser). 3- (1Sam 4:1; Benjamin): perhaps Qastûl. 4- (1 Sam 29:1; Issachar): El-'Afûleh, N.W. of Zerâ 'în. 5- (1Ki 20:26, etc.) Assyr.: Apqu: prob. Fîq, E. of the Lake of Tiberias. --- Aphec. A place of this name was in the tribe of Aser, another in that of Juda. --- Aphec, beyond Antilibanus, from which city the Israelites could not drive the Chanaanites. Judg. i. 31. Here the kings of Syria assembled their forces to attack the people of God, 1 K. xx. 26. Profane authors speak of the temple of Venus Aphachitis, who appeared in the eyes of the superstitious to shed tears. The city lay between Biblus and Heliopolis. Zozimus, i. 58. Euseb. (laud. Const.) Macrobius i. 21. --- Aphec, belonging to the tribe of Aser, though it does not appear that they ever obtained possession of it. Jos. xix. 30. A subterraneous fire and earthquake have caused the city to sink; and a lake, nine miles in circumference, now occupies its place. The ruins may still be discerned in its waters. It is about two hours walk from the plains of Balbec, (Paul Lucas. Levant i. 20.) at the foot of Libanus. The waters must be very thick and bituminous, if what is related by the ancients be true; namely, that the presents, offered to the Aphacite goddess, were tried by them, and deemed agreeable to her, if they sunk; as wool would do, while tiles, and often metals, would swim. C. --- Adrichomius places this Aphec on the great plain of Esdrelon, not far from Jezrahel. M

19 The king of Madon one, the king of Asor one,

Ver. 19.  Madon, or Maron, Sept.  C. xi. 1.  This place is joined with Semeron, in Heb. (v. 20,) improperly.  Perhaps it may be the Meros, (Judg. v. 23,) or Maronia, a city of Phœnicia.



Asor

Asor 1- (Josh 11:1, etc.; Nephtali), also Hasor, Heser. Egyptian: Huzar: the site seems to have been in the neighbourhood of L. Hûleh, but its exact location is the object of great discussions. 2- (Josh 15:23; S. Juda). perhaps connected with Jebel Hâdhîreh, N.E. of Cades. 3- (Josh 15:25; S. Juda). 4- (Neh 11:33, Benjamin), poss. Kh. Hazzûr, N. of Jerusalem. --- Asor, the capital of Jabin. C. xi. 1. --- Asor, near lake Semechon. Jos. xi. 1. Gr. "Nasor," erroneously. C.

20 The king of Semeron one, the king of Achsaph one,

Achsaph

Achsaph (Josh 11:1, etc.; Aser): prob. Kefr Yâsîf, N.E. of Acre.

21 The king of Thenac one, the king of Megeddo one,

Ver. 21.  Thenac, a city of the Levites, but seized afterwards by the Chanaanites.  Judg. i. 27.  It was near the town of Legion, built by the Romans.

 

--- Mageddo, where Josias was overcome, 2 Par. xxxv. 22.  C.




22 The king of Cades one, the king of Jachanan of Carmel one,

Ver. 22.  Jachanan was near Mount Carmel.  Sometimes Josue specifies both the city and the canton, where it was situated; at other times he only mentions the latter, as in the following verse.



Cades

Cades, not far from Mount Hor, on the confines of Idumea, v. 22. and Jud. xi. 16. C. --- Misphat, or of judgment and contradiction, because there the Hebrews contended with Moses and Aaron: it was afterwards called Cadez. Num. xx. 11. --- Cades. The desert of Pharan, or of Cades, is the same. H. --- Sin, or Tsin. Cades is another name of the same desert. Near the city of Cades-barne, the Hebrews encamped a long while, and had plenty of water; but here they murmured for want of it, and Mary departed this life. C. xx. C.

Carmel

Carmel. Not where Elias dwelt, but a city and mountain 10 miles east of Eleutheropolis. Nabal rendered it famous by his imprudence, (1 K. xxv.) and Saul by a triumphal arch, 1 K. xv. 12. --- Carmel, so famous for the miracles of Elias, 3 K. xviii. 20. Josephus (Bel. ii. 17,) places it 120 stadia south of Ptolemais. This range of mountains extended northward through the tribes of Issachar and of Zabulon. Pliny (v. 17,) speaks of a promontory and of a town of this name. Here also the god Carmel was adored, having an altar, but no temple or image, as the ancients had decreed. Nec simulacrum Deo aut templum, (sic tradidere majores) ara tantum et reverentia. Tacit. Hist. ii. 78. --- Vespasian consulted the priest Basilides. Carmel means "the vineyard of the Lord," or the excellent vineyard, &c. It was so rich and beautiful as to become proverbial. The spouse compares the head of his beloved to Carmel. C. vii. 5. Isaias (xxxii. 15,) foretels that the deserts shall be equal to Carmel. It was covered with wood and fruit. S. Jerom in Isai. x. 18. Jer. iv. 26. The city, which was built upon this mountain, and which Pliny calls by the same name, was formerly styled Ecbatana. The oracle had denounced to Cambyses that he should die at Ecbatana, and he concluded that the city of Media was meant; but it was "that of Syria," says Herodotus, (iii. 64,) where he died.

23 The king of Dor, and of the province of Dor one, the king of the nations of Galgal one,

Ver. 23.  Galgal, not where the Israelites had encamped, but that part which was afterwards called the Galilee of the Gentiles, in some corner of which the king in question had fixed his residence.  For we cannot suppose that he ruled over all that country, extending from Tyre to beyond the Jordan.  His people might probably be a mixed multitude of various nations, as Strabo (xvi.) observes, that many parts of Palestine were peopled by men of this description.




24 The king of Thersa one: all the kings thirty and one.

Ver. 24.  Thersa.  Here the kings of Israel kept their court, till Amri built Samaria, (C.) about nine miles more to the north.  Brocard.

 

--- One.  The two kings slain by Moses (W.) are not included.  M.




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