Ver. 1. Warfare. Heb. "is it not determined" (H.) for some short space, as the Levites had to serve from 30 to 50 years of age; (Num. iv. 3. and viii. 25.) and the days of a hireling are also defined and short. Isai. xvi. 14. Amama.
--- No soldier or hireling was ever treated so severely as Job. Yet they justly look for the term of their labours. Sept. have peirathrion. Old Vulg. tentatio. "Is not the life of man a temptation?" C.
--- Palæstra, school, or time given to learn the exercise of a soldier and wrestler; or of one who has to prepare himself for a spiritual warfare, and for heaven. H.
--- Are we not surrounded with dangers? and may we not desire to be set at liberty? The Vulg. is very accurate, (C.) and includes all these senses. H.
--- A soldier must be obedient even unto death, and never resist his superior. W.
--- Hireling, who has no rest till the day is spent. C.
Ver. 3. And have. Heb. "they have appointed for me." C.
--- God treats me with more severity, as even the night is not a time of rest for me, and my months of service are without any present recompense. H.
Ver. 4. And again. Heb. "and the night be completed, I toss to and fro," (H.) or "I am disturbed with dreams, (C.) till day break." Vulg. insinuates that night and day are equally restless to a man in extreme pain. H.
--- As I find no comfort, why may I not desire to die? M.
--- I desire to be dissolved, as being much better, said S. Paul.
Ver. 6. Web. Heb. "the weaver's shuttle." C. xvi. 23. Isa. xxxviii. 12. H.
--- The pagans have used the same comparison. But they make the three daughters of Necessity guide the thread of life. Plato Rep. xii. Natal. iii. 6.
--- Sept. "my life is swifter than speech." Tetrapla, "than a runner." C.
--- Hope. Heu fugit, &c. Ah! time is flying , never to return! H.
Ver. 7. Wind. What is life compared with eternity, or even with past ages? C.
--- "What is any one? Yea, what is no one? Men are the dream of a shadow," says Pindar; (Pyth. viii. SkiaV onar onqrwpoi) "like the baseless fabric of a vision." Shakespeare.
Ver. 8. Eyes, in anger, (C.) or thy mercy will come too late when I shall be no more.
Ver. 9. Hell, or the grave. M.
--- He was convinced of the resurrection. But he meant that, according to the natural course, we can have no means of returning to this world after we are dead.
Ver. 10. More. This may be explained both of the soul and of the body. Ps. cii. 16. The former resides in the body for a short time, and then seems to take no farther notice of it (C.) till the resurrection.
Ver. 11. Mouth. I will vent my bitter complaints before I die. H.
Ver. 12. Sea. Ungovernable and malicious. Some of the ancients looked upon the sea as a huge animal, whose breathing caused the tides. Strabo i. Solin xxxii.
--- They represented its fury as proverbial. "Fire, the sea, and woman are three evils;" and they call the most savage people sons of Neptune. Agel. xv. 21.
--- Am I so violent as to require such barriers? Am I capacious, or strong enough to bear such treatment? C.
Ver. 15. Hanging. Prot. "strangling and death, rather than my life," or Marg. "bones." H.
--- Any species of Death would be preferable to this misery. C.
--- Who would not entertain the same sentiments, if the fear of worse in the other world did not withhold him? But Job had reason to hope that his sorrows would end with his life. H.
--- It is thought that he was dreadfully tempted to despair. C.
--- Yet he resisted manfully, and overcame all attempts of the wicked one.
Ver. 16. Hope of surviving this misery. H.
Ver. 17. Magnify him, or put his to such severe trials. He is not worthy of thy attention. C.
--- Heb. ii. 6. H.
Ver. 18. Suddenly. During his whole life, he is exposed to dangers; (C.) of if, at first, he taste some comfort, that is presently over. The greatest saints have experienced this treatment. H.
Ver. 20. Sinned. I acknowledge my frailty. M.
--- How may I obtain redress? C.
--- Job's friends maintained that he was guilty. But he does not acquiesce in their conclusion, that these sufferings were precisely in punishment of some crime, though he acknowledges that he is not without his faults. H.
--- Shall. Heb. also, "what have I done to thee?" I have only hurt myself. But this reasoning is nugatory. Though God loses nothing by our sins, they are not less offensive to him, as the rebel does his utmost to disturb the order which he has established. The sinner indeed resembles those brutal people, who hurl darts against the sun, which fall upon their own heads. C. iii. 8. C.
--- Opposite, as a butt to shoot at. H.
--- Myself. Heb. was formerly "to thee," till the Jews changed it, as less respectful. Cajet.
--- Sept. still read, "and why am I a burden to thee?" (H.) as I am under the necessity of complaining, in my own defence. C.
--- I throw my grief upon the Lord, that He may support me. Ps. liv. 23. 1 Pet. v. 7. Pineda.
Ver. 21. Be. He lovingly expostulates with God, and begs that he would hasten his deliverance, lest it should be too late. C.