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KNOWEST thou the time when the wild goats bring forth among the rocks, or hast thou observed the hinds when they fawn?

Ver. 1.  Goats (Ibex.  Heb. Yahale.  H.) frequent rocks, and places which are almost inaccessible to man.  C.

2 Hast thou numbered the months of their conceiving, or knowest thou the time when they bring forth? 3 They bow themselves to bring forth young, and they cast them, and send forth roarings.

Ver. 3.  Roarings.  They pretend that these animals bring forth with great difficulty.  Ps. xxviii. 9.  Vatab. &c.


--- Aristotle (v. 2. and vi. 29.) asserts, that they receive the male bending down, as Heb. may be here explained.  "They bend, they divide their young," as they have often two; "and they leave their strings" at the navel, &c.  C.

4 Their young are weaned and go to feed: they go forth, and return not to them.

Ver. 4.  Feed.  Being weaned very soon.  Pliny viii. 32.

5 Who hath sent out the wild ass free, and who hath loosed his bonds?

Ver. 5.  Wild ass, described, C. vi. 5.  The industry of man cannot make this beautiful and strong animal serviceable to him.  The like would be the case (C.) with many others, if Providence had not ordered it otherwise.  H.

6 To whom I have given a house in the wilderness, and his dwellings in the barren land.

Ver. 6.  Barren.  Lit. "salt."  H.


--- This is of a nitrous quality, which renders those countries barren.  The salt in snow and dung gives warmth and fruitfulness.

7 He scorneth the multitude of the city, he heareth not the cry of the driver. 8 He looketh round about the mountains of his pasture, and seeketh for every green thing. 9 Shall the rhinoceros be willing to serve thee, or will he stay at thy crib?

Ver. 9.  Rhinoceros.  See Deut. xxxiii. 17.  Num. xxiii. 22.  Sanchez says they are untameable.  M.


--- But this is not true, when they have been taken young.  Malvenda.  C.

10 Canst thou bind the rhinoceros with thy thong to plough, or will he break the clods of the valleys after thee?

Ver. 10.  Valleys, or furrows.  Can he be made to harrow?

11 Wilt thou have confidence in his great strength, and leave thy labours to him? 12 Wilt thou trust him that he will render thee the seed, and gather it into thy barnfloor?
13 The wing of the ostrich is like the wings of the heron, and of the hawk.

Ver. 13.  Hawk.  We may also read, "Is the wing of the ostrich like?"  Sept. or Theod. "The bird of Neelasa is rejoicing, if she take the Asida, &c. the Neessa."  H.


--- Heb. is variously translated, "The ostrich lifts itself up with its wings, which have feathers, as well as those of the stork."  Bochart.


--- It flutters, running like a partridge, swifter than any horse.  Adamson.


--- "Canst thou give to the stork and the ostrich their feathers," which form all their beauty?  C.


--- Prot. "Gavest thou the goodly wings upon the peacock, or wings and feathers unto the ostrich?"  H.


--- The import of these names is uncertain.  M.


--- Renanim, (from Ron, "to cry, or move quickly,") may signify peacocks, ostriches, &c.  Chasida, "a stork, (H.  Jer.) falcon, (W.) or heron; notsa "a hawk, or a feather."  H.


--- The first term occurs no where else, and may denote any singing birds or grasshoppers, as the last may be applied to the ostrich, which has "wings," though it fly not.  Grot.  C.


--- Acknowledge the wisdom of Providence, which has thus enabled such a huge animal to travel so fast.  M.


--- See Parkhurst, álcs.  H.

14 When she leaveth her eggs on the earth, thou perhaps wilt warm them in the dust.

Ver. 14.  Dust.  This might help to hatch them.  C.


--- Heb. "earth, and warmeth them in the dust."  Prot.

15 She forgetteth that the foot may tread upon them, or that the beasts of the field may break them. 16 She is hardened against her young ones, as though they were not hers, she hath laboured in vain, no fear constraining her.

Ver. 16.  Ones, or eggs which she leaves.  C.


--- Ælian (xiv. 6.) asserts that this bird will expose her own life to defend her young.  Yet the neglect of her eggs, will suffice to make her deemed cruel.  Lam. iv. 3.  H.


--- Her.  Other birds leave their nests through fear; (C.) but this, after sitting a while, will depart carelessly, (H.) and if she meet with other eggs on her road, will take to them, thus rendering her own useless.  Bochart.

17 For God hath deprived her of wisdom, neither hath he given her understanding.

Ver. 17.  Understanding.  This bird has a head disproportionately small; insomuch, that Heliogabalus served up the brains of 600 at one supper.  It greedily eats iron, &c. which may help its digestion, as sand does that of other birds.  C.


--- When it is hunted, it hides its head only, as if this would be a sufficient defence, (Pliny x. 1.) and is taken alive by a man, clothed in the skin of an ostrich, who moves the head with his hand.  Strabo xvi.


--- All which proves its stupidity.  C.

18 When time shall be, she setteth up her wings on high: she scorneth the horse and his rider.

Ver. 18.  High. With her head erect, the ostrich is taller than a man on horseback.  Pliny x. 1.


--- Its wings are used like sails, and enable it to run as fast as many birds can fly, (C.) while it hurls stones at the pursuer with its feet, so as frequently to kill them.  Diod. ii.


--- Rider, as they can travel with equal speed.  M.  v. 13.


--- Adamson (Senegal) placed two negroes on one, and testified that it still went faster than any English horse.  H.

19 Wilt thou give strength to the horse, or clothe his neck with neighing?

Ver. 19.  Neighing.  Heb. "thunder," to denote the fierceness of the horse; or "with a mane," (Bochart) "armour," (Syr.) or "terror."  Sept.  C.


--- Wilt thou enable the horse to neigh, (M.) when he appears so terrible?  H.

20 Wilt thou lift him up like the locusts? the glory of his nostrils is terror.

Ver. 20.  Up.  Heb. "frighten," (H.) or "make him leap."  Bochart.  C.


--- Nostrils.  Sept. "of his chest, or shoulders, is boldness."  H.


--- This inspires the rider with courage, and the enemy with fear.  But the Vulg. is more followed.  C.

                        Frænoque teneri

                        Impatiens crebros expirat naribus ignes.  Silius vi.

21 He breaketh up the earth with his hoof, he pranceth boldly, he goeth forward to meet armed men.

Ver. 21.  Hoof.  Ploughing, or rather prancing, through impatience.  C.


--- Boldly.  Heb. "he exults in his strength," being sensible of glory and commendation.  C.


--- Non dubiè intellectum adhortationis et gloriæ fatentur.  Pliny vii. 43.

22 He despiseth fear, he turneth not his back to the sword, 23 Above him shall the quiver rattle, the spear and shield shall glitter.

Ver. 23.  Shield, or lance.  Jos. viii. 18.  C.


--- The din of armour does not disturb the horse, which has been inured to such things.  H.


--- It is of singular courage.  W.

24 Chasing and raging he swalloweth the ground, neither doth he make account when the noise of the trumpet soundeth.

Ver. 24.  Ground.  This expression is still used by the Arabs, to denote velocity.  Grotius.


--- Sept. "in wrath he will make the earth disappear."  H.



                        Mox sanguis venis melior calet, ire viarum

                        Longa volunt latumque fugâ consumere campum.  Nemesianus.


--- Account.  Heb. "believe that," or "stops not when."  He is so eager to rush forward to battle.

                        Si qua sonum procul arma dedêre,

                        Stare loco nescit, micat auribus et tremit artus.  Georg. iii.

25 When he heareth the trumpet he saith: Ha, ha: he smelleth the battle afar off, the encouraging of the captains, and the shouting of the army.

Ver. 25.  Ha.  Lit. "Vah," a sound of joy, (M.) or of contempt.  Sept. The trumpet having given the sign, he will say, Well: Euge.  Nothing could be more poetically descriptive of the war-horse.  H.

26 Doth the hawk wax feathered by thy wisdom, spreading her wings to the south?

Ver. 26.  Feathered.  Heb. "fly."  H.


--- South, at the approach of "winter retiring" to warmer regions.  Pliny x. 8.


--- Sept. "spreading her wings, looking unmoved, towards the south."  The hawk alone can stare at the sun, and fly to a great height.  Ælian x. 14.


--- Hence the Egyptians consecrated this bird to the sun.  C.


--- The eagle is of the same species, and has the same properties.  H.  Aristotle mentions 10, and Pliny 16 species of hawks.  W.

27 Will the eagle mount up at thy command, and make her nest in high places? 28 She abideth among the rocks, and dwelleth among cragged flints, and stony hills, where there is no access.

Ver. 28.  Access.  See Abdias iv.  Arist. anim. ix. 32.

29 From thence she looketh for the prey, and her eyes behold afar off.

Ver. 29.  Off.  The eagle was remarkably (C.) quick-sighted, (W.) as well as the serpent.  Hor. i. Sat. iii.  Homer, Il. xvii.


--- They say it can discern a fly or a fish from the highest situation; (Bochart) and if its young seem dazzled with the sun-beams, it hurls them down as spurious.  Pliny x. 3.

30 Her young ones shall suck up blood: and wheresoever the carcass shall be, she is immediately there.

Ver. 30.  Blood, gushing forth from the animals, which the eagle brings.  M.


--- S. Chrysostom explains this of the vulture, (Mat. xxiv. 28.  C.) which is of the same species.  M.


--- Some eagles will not touch carcasses, but others are greedy of them.  Pliny x. 3.  Prov. xxx. 17.


--- There.  Our Saviour quotes this passage.  Lu. xvii. 37.  C.

31 And the Lord went on, and said to Job:

Ver. 31.  Went on.  Sept. "answered."  This was the conclusion drawn from the display of God's wonderful works.  If we cannot sufficiently admire them, why should we be so much surprised, as Job acknowledged he was, at the ways of Providence?  It would, therefore, be better to keep silence, v. 35.  H.

32 Shall he that contendeth with God be so easily silenced? surely he that reproveth God, ought to answer him.

Ver. 32.  Be so.  Receive instruction, or (C.) instruct him?  Wilt thou learn to admire my works? (H.) or dost thou attempt to give me any information?  C.


--- Him.  Heb. "it."  Sept. "shall he decline judgment with him who is competent?" ikanou.  Theod. adds, "the man who accuses God, shall answer it," or stand his trial.  H.

33 Then Job answered the Lord, and said: 34 What can I answer, who hath spoken inconsiderately? I will lay my hand upon my mouth.

Ver. 34.  Spoken inconsiderately.  If we discuss all Job's words, (saith S. Gregory) we shall find nothing impious spoken; as may be gathered from  the words of the Lord himself; (chap. xlii. v. 7. 8.) but what was reprehensible in him was the manner of expressing  himself at times, speaking too much of his own affliction, and too little of God's goodness towards him, which here he acknowledges as inconsiderate, (Ch.) or rather as the effect of inculpable ignorance; (H.) as the present order of things being then novel, confounded the sagacity both of Job and of his friends.  The wicked had formerly been the victims of justice, but henceforth, says Job, (Heb.) "if it shall not be so, who can convince me of lying?"  C. xxiv. 25.  Yet he did not perfectly discern the intention of God, in abandoning his servants to the power of satan, till the Lord himself had explained it in the parables of behemoth and leviathan.  Then Job testified his conviction and entire submission.  C. xlii. 5.  Houbigant observes that the Vulg. is perhaps less accurate here, and C. xlii. 3. as God exculpates Job, v. 8.  Yet the latter might entertain fear at least, of having exceeded in words, after such pungent question.  We may translate, (H.) Heb. "Behold I am vile, (C.) what shall I answer thee?" Prot. or Sept. "Why am I still judged, being admonished and rebuke by the Lord, hearing such things?"  (Grabe, after Origen, marks with an obel what follows, as not found in Heb.) "I, who am nothing, what answer shall I then give to these things?"  H.


--- If we discuss all Job's speeches, we find nothing spoken wickedly, but only a species of pride, in talking too much of his sufferings, and too little of God's goodness and justice, which he ought to have confessed.  S. Greg. xxxii. 3.  W.

35 One thing I have spoken, which I wish I had not said: and another, to which I will add no more.

Ver. 35.  One.  Sept. "Once I have spoken, but I will not add again."  H.


--- I have spoken too much, but I will be more cautious.  Heb. "I have spoken one thing, and I will not answer; (C.) yea, two things, but I will go no farther."  Many of my observations may be too strong, as I am not perfectly aware what may be the designs of Providence in my regard.  H.

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