Ver. 3. Taste. The most accurate philosophers attribute this faculty to the tongue, (C.) rather than to the throat, guttur. Heb. "mouth or palate." H.
--- But Eliu speaks agreeably to the notions of the vulgar. C.
--- Intellectus saporum cæteris est in prima lingua, homini et in palato. Pliny xi. 37.
Ver. 5. Judgment. C. xxvii. 2. Job had used this expression, but only to intimate that strict justice did not take place, as he thought his faults had not deserved so severe a chastisement. He did not pretend that God was unjust, or that he was quite blameless; and he had so explicitly declared his sentiments, that Eliu could not well be ignorant of them. C.
Ver. 6. There. Sept. "he has been deceived;" eyeusato. Heb. "I will convict my judge of lying;" or (C.) Prot. "should I lie against my right?" H.
--- Job, in the excess of grief, had expressed himself forcibly. C. xix. 6. and xxiii. 7. But great deductions must be made from such hyperboles; and he had frequently praised the mercy and justice of God, and his just punishment of the wicked. He had indeed excepted himself from the number; and Eliu ought to have proved that he was wrong in this respect. But he seems to have all along evaded or mistaken the point under dispute. C.
--- Arrow, which pierces me. H.
--- The deferring judgment was not a subversion of it, as Eliu would argue,. C. xxvii. 2. W.
Ver. 7. What. This may be a continuation of Job's speech, who seemed to assert that none had ever been insulted like himself, nor borne it with greater patience; (C. xvi. 4.) or Eliu reproaches him with talking scornfully to his friends and to God. C.
Ver. 8. Goeth in. Sept. insert a negation, which is not found in Heb. Chal. &c. They may be understood to speak ironically. C.
--- "Who committeth no sin, nor iniquity, nor has had any society with lawless people, so as to walk with wicked men." H.
Ver. 9. With him, and strive to please him. Horrible blasphemy! of which Job was incapable: as if God were a cruel master, and threw us into despair. He had asserted that God punishes the wicked, and often treats his friends with the like severity, (C. ix. 22. and xxx. 26.) in this world: which is very true. C.
--- Sept. "Say not that man is visited. He is indeed visited by the Lord." H.
--- Eliu wrests Job's words, in order that he may have something to say against him. S. Greg. xxiv. 25. W.
Ver. 13. Earth? If God cannot be unjust, hat he given the administration of the world to some other, who may have been deceived? This will not be asserted. Heb. "who hath visited the earth for him?" or, "who hath set him over the earth?" Is he a hired judge, who may be bribed? C.
Ver. 14. To him, and examine his conduct with rigour: there is scarcely a moment of our lives in which he would not discover a just reason for withdrawing his hand, and suffering us to die. Ps. ciii. 29. C.
Ver. 17. Judgment. How can we hope for redress from God, while he condemns his conduct? M.
--- How can we bring Job to a sense of his duty, since he entertains such perverse notions? Heb. "Shall he hold dominion, who hates justice?" If God be unjust, does he deserve our adoration? (C.) or, "ought not the person to be put in prison, who resists judgment?" Grot. "If thou dost not think that He who hates crimes, and destroys the impious, is eternal and just?" Sept. H.
Ver. 18. Who. Theod. in Sept. "wicked is he who says to the king, thou actest contrary to the law; and to the rulers, thou most impious." H.
--- Apostate. Heb. "Belial."
Ver. 19. Tyrant. This title is not always odious. It formerly was given to all princes, and came to be used in a bad sense, on account of the misconduct of some kings of Sicily. Tyrannus a rege distat factis, non nomine. Sen. Clem. xii.
--- Heb. "the rich more than the poor." H.
--- God fears not to rebuke even the greatest princes, and dost thou dare to arraign his justice? C.
Ver. 20. They, the wicked, whatever may be their station in life. H.
--- God takes off the tyrant (C.) when he least expects it, as well as the poor. H.
--- Troubled, or make an insurrection. C.
--- This often proves the ruin of tyrants. H.
--- Hand, by the destroying angel. C.
Ver. 22. Death, or the most obscure recess. H.
Ver. 23. Man. Heb. "He will not lay upon man (C.) more than right (Prot. H.) to," &c. After once passing sentence, all is over. C.
--- When man has fallen into sin, he cannot with a god grace contend with God. C.
Ver. 24. Stead. Where are not the ancient Assyrians, Carthaginians, &c. who once made such a figure in the world? C.
--- Sept. "glorious and sudden, and unnumbered." The next eight verses are taken from Theodotion. H.
Ver. 25. Night, calamities. At once the shall be oppressed. C.
Ver. 26. Sight. Lit. "in the place of the beholders," (H.) in public. C.
Ver. 27. All. Prot. "Any of." The wicked observed none of God's commandments as they ought. He that offends in one become guilty of all. Jam. ii. 10.
Ver. 29. Condemn, either God or the person whom he approves. Does not he exercise dominion over all? C.
--- Men. Lit. "all men." Heb. "a man." God may destroy either a part or the whole of creation. Sometimes whole nations or cities are cut off, and the deluge nearly swept away all mankind. H.
Ver. 30. People. A hypocrite denotes one infected with all sorts of crimes. S. Iræn. v. 24. Such a king is sometimes given to punish a wicked people. Ose. xiii. 11. Isai. iii. 4. This sense is beautiful, and followed by the Chal. Sept. &c. We may explain the Heb. in like manner, by neglecting the Masoretic points. C.
--- Prot. "That the hypocrite reign not, lest the people be ensnared." H.
--- Heb. "He overturns the throne of hypocrites, on account of the scandal of the people," or "he delivers the people from servitude." The sense of the Vulg. seems preferable. C.
--- Eliu insinuates that Job had been a hypocrite and an oppressor; but God exculpates him. W.
Ver. 31. Seeing. Heb. "Thou shouldst have said to the Lord, I have suffered enough: (C.) I will not offend." Prot. H. v. 32.
--- Turn. He had undertaken to plead God's cause. C.
Ver. 33. It, my iniquity. M.
--- Will God make thee accountable for it? H.
--- Yea, if thou keep silence, (C.) thou wilt seem to connive at it. H.
--- He wishes to engage Job to speak. Heb. may be translated many ways. C.
--- Prot. "Should it be according to thy mind? He will recompense it whether thou refuse, or whether thou choose; and not I. Therefore speak what thou knowest." H.
Ver. 36. Father. From God all the rights of a father spring. Ephes. iii. 15. C.
--- Sept. "No indeed: but learn Job, answer not like fools." Prot. "my desire is, (marginal note, my father) that Job may be tried unto the end, because of his answers for the wicked." H.
--- He has imitated their wicked discourses; let his chastisement deter others. C.
--- The sequel seems to intimate, that Eliphaz is here styled Father. M.
Ver. 37. Fast, and pressed by arguments. M. C.
--- Heb. "since he adds crime (C. Prot. rebellion) to his sin, and clappeth his hands among us, and multiplieth his words against the Lord." Eliu concluding that Job was obstinate, (H.) invites his friends to join in prayer, that he might be still more severely chastised, to make him enter into himself. Such a strange petition might possibly proceed from charity. But Eliu had given too many proofs of passion, to allow this interpretation. Had he evinced that Job as a criminal? and were not his sorrows already too great, so that he might rather have prayed that God would alleviate them, or grant him more patience?