Gen Ex Lev Num Deut Josh Judg Ruth 1 Sam 2 Sam 1 Ki 2 Ki 1 Chron 2 Chron Ezra Neh Tob Jdt Esth Job Ps Prov Eccles Song Wis Sir Isa Jer Lam Bar Ezek Dan Hos Joel Amos Obad Jon Mic Nah Hab Zeph Hag Zech Mal 1 Mac 2 Mac
I made a covenant with my eyes, that I would not so much as think upon a virgin.

Ver. 1.  I made.  Job is compelled to proclaim his own praises, for his vindication, as S. Paul was, being at the same time convinced that he had only done his duty.  Luk. xvii. 10.  This is the third part of his discourse.  Having given a picture of his prosperous and of his miserable condition, he observes that the latter was not inflicted in consequence of any  misconduct, since he had always been attentive to avoid (C.) the most remote danger of offending God, or his neighbour.  H.


--- That I.  Heb. "for why should I think upon a virgin?"  H.


--- Why should I expose myself, (C.) by indiscreet looks, (H.) since the passage from the eye to the heart is so easy.  Eccles. ii. 10.  M.


--- In the warfare between the flesh and the spirit, Job deemed this precaution necessary, (W.) and was thus preserved from carnal thoughts.  S. Greg. xx. 2.

2 For what part should God from above have in me, and what inheritance the Almighty from on high?

Ver. 2.  High, if I should give way to such unchaste thoughts.  M.

3 Is not destruction to the wicked, and aversion to them that work iniquity?

Ver. 3.  Aversion of God.  Hebrew "strange punishment."  Prot.  Incontinence is a source of much mischief, and of the most dreadful punishments, as the deluge and fate of Sodom evince.  H.

4 Doth not he consider my ways, and number all my steps?


5 If I have walked in vanity, and my foot hath made haste to deceit:

Ver. 5.  Vanity, or hypocrisy, (C.) so as to overreach others.  M.

6 Let him weigh me in a just balance, and let God know my simplicity.

Ver. 6.  Simplicity, and "uprightness."  Tummathi.  H.

7 If my step hath turned out of the way, and if my heart hath followed my eyes, and if a spot hath cleaved to my hands:

Ver. 7.  Eyes. Sixtus V. read, "If my eye hath followed  my heart."  C.


--- Job kept the utmost restraint both upon his eyes and heart, that no evil impressions from exterior objects might cause his ruin.  Num. xv. 39.  H.


--- Hands, from presents, (C.) or injustice, particularly that of impurity.  H.

8 Then let me sow and let another eat: and let my offspring be rooted out. 9 If my heart hath been deceived upon a woman, and if I have laid wait at my friend's door:

Ver. 9.  Door, to seduce his wife.  C.  M.

10 Let my wife be the harlot of another, and let other men lie with her.

Ver. 10.  Let.  Heb. "Let my wife grind for another, and let others bend over her," urging her to work like the meanest slave.  C.


--- Sept. "Let my wife please (Grabe substitutes l of r, and reads alesai, grind for) another, and my little children be brought low."  H.


--- Yet the sense of the Vulg. is most followed.  Eccli. xlvii. 21.  Lam. v. 13.  Ausonius (epig. 5) says, molitur per utramque cavernam.  C.

11 For this is a heinous crime, and a most grievous iniquity.

Ver. 11.  This adultery, to which I might have given way, and that of others with my wife, (H.) which would have been a requital, of which I could not indeed have complained, (M.) but which is nevertheless a most heinous offence.  H.


--- Iniquity.  Heb. "a crime of judgment," or capital.  Gen. xxxviii. 24.  C.


--- The canons of the Church (H.) have ranked adultery with murder and idolatry, which shews the horror in which it is held.  C.

12 It is a fire that devoureth even to destruction, and rooteth up all things that spring.

Ver. 12.  Spring; the children.  Eccli. xxiii. 35.  Wisd. iv. 3.  C.


--- Prot. "all mine increase."  H.


--- Adulteresses were formerly consigned to the flames.  The injured husband would resent the offence, and even dislike her former children.  Love is also like a fire, and those who entertain it, may soon consume all their substance (M.) in feasting and presents.  Above all, the fire of God's indignation in hell will still pursue the libidinous.

13 If I have despised to abide judgment with my manservant, or my maidservant, when they had any controversy against me:

Ver. 13.  Me, in private; as slaves had no redress in the common courts of judicature.  We cannot but admire Job's humility, and noble sentiments of God, (C.) whose majesty will eclipse all human grandeur, and place the master and the servant on the same level.  S. Greg.  S. Aug. de Civ. Dei. x. 25.  Eph. vi. 9.  Col. iv. 1.

14 For what shall I do when God shall rise to judge? and when he shall examine, what shall I answer him? 15 Did not he that made me in the womb make him also: and did not one and the same form me in the womb? 16 If I have denied to the poor what they desired, and have made the eyes of the widow wait:

Ver. 16.  Wait, and not give sentence in due time, (H.) but frustrated her expectation.  M.

17 If I have eaten my morsel alone, and the fatherless hath not eaten thereof:

Ver. 17.  Alone.  This was objected to S. Chrysostom.  C.


--- But his conduct proceeded not from pride or avarice.  H.


--- The ancient patriarchs delighted much in the exercise of hospitality; and Tobias (iv. 17.) exhorts his son to invite the poor.  Cœna, or "supper," received its name from many eating "together," while people dined alone.  Plut. Sym. viii. prob. 6.

18 (For from my infancy mercy grew up with me: and it came out with me from my mother's womb:)

Ver. 18.  Womb.  I was of a compassionate disposition, with which I always corresponded.  S. Greg.


--- Heb. "from my youth, pity (ceab, which Prot. translate "as with a father."  H.) grew up with me; and from my birth I have preserved it!"  C.


--- Prot. "From my youth he was brought up with me, as with a father, and I have guided her (the widow, margin) from my mother's womb."  Sept. "I fed him as a father, Theodotion adds, and was his leader from," &c.  It was my earliest delight to assist the afflicted orphan and widow.  H.

19 If I have despised him that was perishing for want of clothing, and the poor man that had no covering: 20 If his sides have not blessed me, and if he were not warmed with the fleece of my sheep:

Ver. 20.  Blessed me for clothing.  M.

21 If I have lifted up my hand against the fatherless, even when I saw myself superior in the gate:

Ver. 21.  Gate, in judgment, (C.) where I was the supreme judge, (H.) and none could resist me.

22 Let my shoulder fall from its joint, and let my arm with its bones be broken.

Ver. 22.  With.  Heb. "from its bone," at the elbow.  Sept.  C.

23 For I have always feared God as waves swelling over me, and his weight I was not able to bear.

Ver. 23.  Bear.  I knew that he would resent the injury, though I might, for a time, oppress the weak.

24 If I have thought gold my strength, and have said to fine gold: My confidence:

Ver. 24.  Fine obrizo.  Heb. cethem.  C. xxviii. 15.  H.

25 If I have rejoiced over my great riches, and because my hand had gotten much. 26 If I beheld the sun when it shined, and the moon going in brightness: 27 And my heart in secret hath rejoiced, and I have kissed my hand with my mouth:

Ver. 27.  Rejoiced.  Heb. and Chal. "been seduced" to idolatry.  M.


--- The worship of the sun and moon was most ancient.  Ezec. viii. 16.


--- Mouth, to testify respect and admiration.  This custom prevailed in many nations.  Lucian (dial. de sacrif.) observes that this only sacrifice of the poor was not disregarded.  The Syrians still extend their hands towards the altar, and then apply them to their mouth and eyes, when the body and blood of Christ are offered in the Mass.  Life of M. de Chateuil.  C.


--- Sept. (26) "Do I not see the shining sun eclipsed, (H.) and the moon disappear, for light does not belong to them," but to the Creator, from whom we have every thing; (C.) so that we should not swell with pride.  Theodotion adds, (27) "and if my heart was secretly deceived."  Sept. continue, "if indeed, putting my hand to my mouth, I kissed, (28) this would also be imputed to me as a great transgression, because I should have acted falsely before the most high God."  H.


--- He will admit of no rival; hence the man who admits another god, denies Him.  M.


--- Job repels the charge which had been indirectly brought against him.  W.

28 Which is a very great iniquity, and a denial against the most high God. 29 If I have been glad at the downfall of him that hated me, and have rejoiced that evil had found him.

Ver. 29.  Rejoiced.  Heb. "lifted up myself."  Sept. "said in my heart, well, well;" euge.  H.


--- These sentiments of perfection shew that the same Spirit animated those who lived under the law of nature, as well as those who were favoured with the Mosaic or Christian dispensation.  C.

30 For I have not given my mouth to sin, by wishing a curse to his soul.

Ver. 30.  For.  Sept. "Then let mine ear hear my curse, and may I fall a prey to the whispers of my people."

31 If the men of my tabernacle have not said: Who will give us of his flesh that we may be filled?

Ver. 31.  Filled.  If my servants have not testified sufficient affection for me, (H.) because I kept them under restraint, and obliged them to wait on my guests, (M.  S. Greg.) I still would not omit that duty; (v. 32.  H.) or if they gave way to the greatest excesses of rage, so as to threaten to devour me, I refrained from wishing any evil to my enemy, v. 30.  C.


--- Others suppose that Job's domestics urged him on to revenge, and spoke as if they were ready to eat his enemies; (Cajet.  T.) while some explain the expression in a contrary sense, to denote the extreme attachment of Job's servants to his person; in which manner the Church uses it, speaking of Christ's feeding us with his own body and blood.  C.


--- Sept. "If frequently my maids said who?" &c.  Heb. "said not, oh! that we had of his flesh! we cannot be satisfied."  Prot.  H.


--- Have I given my servants any reason to utter these expressions?

32 The stranger did not stay without, my door was open to the traveller. 33 If as a man I have hid my sin, and have concealed my iniquity in my bosom.

Ver. 33.  A man.  Heb. "Adam," who, to excuse himself, threw the blame upon Eve.  Gen. iii. 12.  C.


--- His posterity have too frequently imitated his example.  The name of Adam often designates any man.  H.


--- It was requisite that Job should assert his sincerity, that his friends  might not suppose that he was actuated by self-love or obstinacy to defend his innocence.  C.


--- Sept. "If falling into an involuntary fault I hid my sin, (for I feared not the crowd of people, that I should not plead before them) but if I let the needy pass my gate with his bosom empty."  Theod. xxxv. subjoins, "who would give me a hearer? but if I did not revere the hand of the Lord."  Sept. go on, "the bond which I had against any one, if I placed on my shoulder, as a crown, and read, an did not rather tear it, and give it up, taking nothing from my debtor.  If," &c. v. 38.  According to this version, Job insists on his pity for the distressed, and shews that he had no reason to fear.  But the Hebrew is more conformable to the Vulg.

34 If I have been afraid at a very great multitude, and the contempt of kinsmen hath terrified me: and I have not rather held my peace, and not gone out of the door.

Ver. 34.  Have not.  Heb. "that I kept silence, not going out of doors" to defend the innocent.  H.


--- Moses commands judges to do their duty without fear.  Ex. xxiii. 2.  People in such situations ought to be uninfluenced by hatred, love, &c.  Cæsar says, justly, (in Sallust) "qui de rebus dubiis consultant, ab adio, amicitiâ, irá atque misericordia vacuos esse decet.  Haud facilè animus verum providet, ubi illa officiunt."  H.

35 Who would grant me a hearer, that the Almighty may hear my desire; and that he himself that judgeth would write a book,

Ver. 35.  He himself.  Heb. "my adversary would write a book."  His very accusation would establish my cause, provided he adhered to the truth.  C.


--- I would carry it about as a trophy.  H.


--- A book.  The judge wrote down the sentence.  Job appeals to God, and fears not being condemned.

36 That I may carry it on my shoulder, and put it about me as a crown?

Ver. 36.  Crown.  This shews that something pliable was then used to  write on.  The people of the East still lift up to their heads such letters as they respect.  Chardin Perse, p. 218.   See 4 K. xi. 12.  C.

37 At every step of mine I would pronounce it, and offer it as to a prince.

Ver. 37.  To a.  Heb. "as a prince would I approach to him," and not fear my adversary.  H.

38 If my land cry against me, and with it the furrows thereof mourn:

Ver. 38.  Mourn, as if I possessed the land unjustly, or had committed some crime.

39 If I have eaten the fruits thereof without money, and have afflicted the soul of the tillers thereof:

Ver. 39.  Money.  Or paying for them.  M.


--- And have.  Prot. "or have caused the owners thereof to lose their life."

40 Let thistles grow up to me instead of wheat, and thorns instead of barley.

Ver. 40.  Thorns.  Prot. "cockle."  Marg. "loathsome weeds."  H.


--- The precise import of the word is not known; but it means something "stinking."  C.


--- Sept. Batos, "a briar."  H.


--- Ended.  Many Latin editions omit these words with S. Gregory, &c.  The old Vulg. has & quieverunt verba Job, as a title.  C.


--- Sept. place at the beginning of the next chapter, "And Job ceased to speak.  His three friends also left off contending with Job; for Job was just before them."  Grabe substitutes "himself," as they were not perhaps yet convinced.  H.


--- Job, however, addresses his discourse no more to them, but only to God, (C.) acknowledging some unadvised speeches; (W.) or want of information.  H.

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