Ver. 2. Knowledge. How then canst thou dispute with God?
Ver. 3. Profit. God rules all with justice or with mercy: since, therefore, he punishes, it must be for some guilt, and not for his own advantage. But he might still chastise for the good of man, or to manifest his own power. Jo. ix. 3. God also punishes the sinner for the wrong which he does to himself. S. Aug. Conf. iii. 8. Any one may discover the sophism of Eliphaz. If God were indifferent with regard to our virtue, who would be able to advance one step towards him? C.
--- Man is unprofitable indeed to God, but he may reap great advantage from piety himself; and this is what God desires, as well as his own glory. Mat. v. 17. W.
Ver. 4. Fear. Thus malefactors are condemned, that they may no longer disturb society. But may not God afflict the just, though he have nothing to fear? C.
Ver. 5. Iniquities. He adduces no fresh arguments, but boldly taxes Job with many crimes, which a person in his station might have committed. He rashly concludes that he must have fallen into some of them at least. C.
Ver. 6. Pledge. Heb. "person." Debtors might be sold. Matt. xviii. 30.
Ver. 7. Water. Job's disposition was the reverse. C. xxix. 15. Such inhumanity would hardly be conceived possible among us. But he Idumeans were guilty of it; (Num. xx. 18. Isai. xxi. 14.) and if it had not been probable, Eliphaz would not have dared to speak thus. C.
Ver. 8. It. Heb. and Sept. intimate that Job accepted persons, and gave sentence in favour of his rich friends. H.
Ver. 9. Arms; possessions, condemning orphans unjustly.
Ver. 11. Waters, and misery, (C.) which such conduct deserved. H.
Ver. 12. Stars: and of course, that his Providence regardeth not human affairs. C.
--- When an infidel observed, "I think the gods are too great to want my adoration," Socrates well replied, "The greater they appear to thee, the more oughtest thou to treat them with respect and honour." Xenophon, Memor.
Ver. 14. Doth. Heb. "seeth not." Sept. "is not seen."
--- Poles, on which the whole machine seems to turn. C.
--- "Hipparchus intimated that there would be a time when the hinges, or poles of heaven, would be moved out of their places." Colum. i. 1. Heb. and Sept. (according to Origen's edition, v. 13 to 16) "he walketh about in the circuit of heaven." H.
Immortali ævo summâ cum pace fruatur
Semota a nostris rebus, sejunctaque longè. Lucret.
This was the error of the Egyptians, (Arist. Mun. 84.) which Eliphaz unjustly lays to the charge of Job, as heretics often impute condemned tenets to Catholics. W.
Ver. 15. Wicked. Sept. Alex. "just." But Grabe substitutes unjust; (H.) as otherwise, Eliphaz would argue against his own principles: unless just be put ironically for hypocrites. C.
--- Wilt thou imitate the ancient giants, before the deluge? C.
Ver. 16. Flood. Heb. "river," (Sept. C.) or "flood." Prot. This does not certainly allude to the deluge, though Job could not be unacquainted with an event (H.) which appears in the writings of the most ancient pagan authors. Grot. Relig.
Ver. 18. From me. He thus insinuates that Job entertained such sentiments, though he seemed to condemn them. C. xxi. 16. C.
--- Sept. "is far from him," God.
Ver. 19. Shall. Sept. "saw." The Jews explain this of Noe, who saw the ruin of the giants with pity, mixed with joy, as he approved of the divine judgments. Vatab. &c.
--- The just can thus rejoice, only on this account; as they would not be just if they were devoid of charity. S. Greg. Ps. lvii. 11. and cvi. 42. C.
Ver. 20. Their. Heb. "our." C.
--- "Whereas our substance is not cut down." Prot. H.
--- But the Sept. and Chal. agree with the Vulg. which gives a better sense.
--- Fire, which consumed Sodom, &c. C.
Ver. 22. Law of Moses, (Rabbins) or rather (H.) the natural law, which teaches that God is just, and deserves to be adored. He addresses Job, as if he had acknowledged no law or restraint.
Ver. 24. Gold, to build and adorn thy habitation, v. 23. Heb. "He will give thee gold instead of dust; (or more abundant) yea, gold of the torrents of Ophir." The Phasis is said to roll gold dust, which is of the purest kind. Gen. ii. 11. C.
--- "Thou shalt lay upon gold as dust, and the gold of Ophir, as the stones of the brooks." Prot. H.
--- This is an exaggeration, (3 K. x. 27. C.) and a sort of proverb, intimating that strength and plenty should succeed to infirmity. The foundations should be the hard rock, instead of earth, &c.
Ver. 25. Silver. Sept. "But he shall purify thee, as silver, which has passed the fire." H.
Ver. 26. Face, with confidence of being in favour and accepted. C.
Ver. 27. Vows, after obtaining thy requests. M.
Et positis aris jam vota in littore solves. Æn. iii.
Ver. 28. Decree. Thy projects shall succeed. Sept. "But he shall appoint for thee the rule of justice." H.
Ver. 29. Glory, as the gospel declares. Mat. xxiii. 12. The Heb. is more perplexed. "When men are cast down, then thou shalt say, there is lifting up." Prot. (H.) or "when thy eyes shall be cast down, they shall say to thee, Arise." C.
Ver. 30. Innocent. Heb. "He shall deliver even the man who is not innocent, and that for the sake of the purity of thy hands." Chal. Jun. &c.
--- God will even spare the guilty, to manifest the regard which he has for the intercession of the saints. These interpreters have taken ai in the same sense as ain, which is the case, 1 K. iv. 21. C.
--- Others explain, "He shall deliver the island of the innocent, and it is delivered by the pureness of thine hands." Prot. This also would shew the merit and protection of the saints, as a whole island may owe its safety to one of God's servants. In effect, the would stands by the prayers of the saints. H.
--- All that has been said from v. 21. tends to shew that God favours his friends; and, consequently, that he would never have punish Job, if he had not been guilty. C.