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AGAINST Moab thus saith the Lord of hosts the God of Israel: Woe to Nabo, for it is laid waste, and confounded: Cariathaim is taken: the strong city is confounded and hath trembled.

Ver. 1.  Moab.  This people broke their covenant with Sedecias, yet were punished for having entered into it, five years after the taking of Jerusalem.  Jos.  S. Jer. in C. xxv. 32.


--- The same war is described by Ezec. xxv. 8.  Soph. ii. 8.  Many words of Isaias (xv. and xvi. and xxiv.) are adopted, though he speaks of what happened under Ezechias.


--- Nabo, a town at the foot of that mountain, where Moses died.  Deut. xxxiv.  It might have been famous for some pretended "oracle."  Is. xv. 2. and xlvi. 1.  This chief city, with the rest, shall be destroyed.  W.


--- Cariathaim.  This city, and most of the others, were repossessed by Moab after the Israelites were led into captivity.  C.


--- City.  Heb. Hammisgab, a fortress.  Vat.


Cariathaim. This city, and most of the others, were repossessed by Moab after the Israelites were led into captivity. C.

2 There is no more rejoicing in Moab over Hesebon: they have devised evil. Come, and let us cut it off from being a nation. Therefore shalt thou in silence hold thy peace, and the sword shall follow thee.

Ver. 2.  Hesebon, at the foot of Phasga, and one of the strongest cities.


--- Shalt.  Heb. "shall Medemena hold her peace."  C.


--- "Thou shalt be cut down, O madmen."  H.


--- It signifies "silence."  Thou silent city, thou shalt be reduced to a mournful silence or destruction.

3 A voice of crying from Oronaim: waste, and great destruction.

4 Moab is destroyed: proclaim a cry for her little ones.

Ver. 4.  Little ones.  Heb. "to Segor."  v. 34.  Is. xv. 5.  C.


--- Chal. "princes" of the second rank.  Vat.

5 For by the ascent of Luith shall the mourner go up with weeping: for in the descent of Oronaim the enemies have heard a howling of destruction.

6 Flee, save your lives: and be as heath in the wilderness.

Ver. 6.  Heath, or tamarick.  C. xvii. 6.  Heb. Haroher.


7 For because thou hast trusted in thy bulwarks, and in thy treasures, thou also shalt be taken: and Chamos shall go into captivity, his priests, and his princes together.

Ver. 7.  Bulwarks.  Heb. "works," or possessions of corn, cattle, &c.  C.


--- Chamos, the idol of the Moabites.  Ch.


--- He was esteemed the king of the country, as the devil is the ape of God.  The prophets often deride the imbecility of these idols.  C. xliii. and xi.  The chief idol of Moab shall fall, to shew the vanity of trusting in idols.  W.


8 And the spoiler shall come upon every city, and no city shall escape: and the valleys shall perish, and the plains shall be destroyed, for the Lord hath spoken:

Ver. 8.  Spoiler, or "thief," (prædo) a title which Nabuchodonosor deserved, on account of his unjust conquests.  C.

9 Give a flower to Moab, for in its flower it shall go out: and the cities thereof shall be desolate, and uninhabited.

Ver. 9.  Flower: an usual ceremony at funerals.  A. Lapide.  M.


--- Manibus date lilia plenis.  Æn. vi.


--- Heb. "wings."  Prot. "signs."  Sept. (H.) "that they may know how to return."  Let Moab flee.  C.

10 Cursed be he that doth the work of the Lord deceitfully: and cursed be he that withholdeth his sword from blood.

Ver. 10.  Deceitfully.  In the Greek, negligently.  The work of God here spoken of, is the punishment of the Moabites.  Ch.


--- Woe to those who spare those whom God orders to be destroyed, as Saul and Achab did.  1 K. xv. 8. 23. and 3 K. xx. 32. 42.  The zeal of the Levites, Phinees, &c. is rewarded.  Ex. xxxii. 27.  Num. xx. 8.

11 Moab hath been fruitful from his youth, and hath rested upon his lees: and hath not been poured out from vessel to vessel, nor hath gone into captivity: therefore his taste hath remained in him, and his scent is not changed.

Ver. 11.  Fruitful as a vine.


--- Lees.  The wine has not been disturbed.  It was customary to keep it first in pits, (Mark xii. 1.  Is. v. 1.) and afterwards in large earthen vessels.  Vina bibes Tauro diffusa: "Thou shalt drink wine bottled off in the consulship of Taurus."  Hor. i. ep. 5.


--- If the wine was weak, the vessels were put under ground.  Pliny xiv. 21.


--- The better sort was arranged in order, (v. 12.) in some clean apartment.  Cant. ii. 4.  Odys. B. 237.


--- Changed.  He alludes to the wine.  H.


--- Moab has enjoyed a long peace and prosperity.  C.

12 Therefore behold the days come, saith the Lord, and I will send him men that shall order and overturn his bottles, and they shall cast him down, and shall empty his vessels, and break their bottles one against another.
13 And Moab shall be ashamed of Chamos, as the house of Israel was ashamed of Bethel, in which they trusted.

Ver. 13.  Of Bethel.  That is, of their golden calves, which they worshipped in Bethel.  Ch.


--- Chamos and the golden calves were both taken away.  Osee viii. 5.  C.


--- The ten tribes had foolishly trusted in the latter.  3 K. xii.  W.



Bethel, 1 see s.v. — 2 (Josh 12:16; Simeon) another name for Bethul. --- Bethel, as it was called in the days of Moses, being the ancient Luza. C. --- Bethel signifies the house of God, being honoured with two altars. H.

14 How do you say: We are valiant, and stout men in battle?


15 Moab is laid waste, and they have cast down her cities: and her choice young men are gone down to the slaughter: saith the king, whose name is the Lord of hosts.

16 The destruction of Moab is near to come: the calamity thereof shall come on exceeding swiftly.

Ver. 16.  Swiftly; about twenty-three years from the fourth of Joakim.

17 Comfort him, all you that are round about him, and all you that know his name, say: How is the strong staff broken, the beautiful rod?

Ver. 17.  His name, as particular friends.  Ex. xxxiii. 12. 17.  People in the East had a secret name, which they disclosed to very few, to prevent incantations.


--- Rod.  This nation was exceedingly vain.  v. 29.

18 Come down from thy glory, and sit in thirst, O dwelling of the daughter of Dibon: because the spoiler of Moab is come up to thee, he hath destroyed thy bulwarks.

Ver. 18.  Thirst.  Dibon was well supplied with water.  Is. xv. 9.

19 Stand in the way, and look out, O habitation of Aroer: inquire of him that fleeth: and say to him that hath escaped: What Is done?


Aroer 1- (Deut 2:36, etc.; Moab. S., l. 26): 'Arâ'ir, N. of the Arnon river. 2- (Judg 11:33), "over against Rabba", i.e. E. of Ammân. 3- (1Sam 30:28; S. Juda), Egyptian: Har-horar: 'Ar'ârah, E.S.E. of Bersabee. --- Aroer, upon the Arnon, belonged to the tribe of Gad.

20 Moab is confounded, because he is overthrown: howl ye, and cry, tell ye it in Amen, that Moab is wasted.

Ver. 20.  Arnon, on which river Aroer stood.

21 And judgment is come upon the plain country: upon Helon, and upon Jasa, and upon Mephaath.

22 And upon Dibon, and upon Nabo, and upon the house of Deblathaim,

23 And upon Cariathaim, and upon Bethgamul, and upon Bethmaon,


Cariathaim. This city, and most of the others, were repossessed by Moab after the Israelites were led into captivity. C.


Bethgamul (Jer 48:23; Moab), Kh. Jemãîl, N.E. of Dibân.


See Baalmeon.

24 And upon Carioth, and upon Bosra: and upon all the cities of the land of Moab, far or near.


Bosra, 1 (Isa 63:1; Edom): Buseireh, S. of the Dead Sea. — 2 (Josh 21:27), mistranslation for Astaroth. — 3 (Jer 48:24): Bosor, 1. --- Bosra, or Bezer, was the capital of Idumea, in the tribe of Ruben. C.


Carioth, 1 (Josh 15:25; S. Juda), rather Carioth Hesron, the birthplace of Judas, "the man of Carioth": Kh. el-Qureitein, S. of Hebron. — 2 (Amos 2:2; Jer 48:24, 41; Moabite Stone, 1. 13; Moab): prob. Er-Rabbâh. --- Carioth. Sept. "the cities." Carioth has this meaning, but is was also the name of a great city. Jer. xlviii. 24. H.

25 The horn of Moab is cut off, and his arm is broken, saith the Lord.

26 Make him drunk, because he lifted up himself against the Lord: and Moab shall dash his hand in his own vomit, and he also shall be in derision.

Ver. 26.  Drunk with the wine of God's wrath.


--- Dash.  Heb. "roll in," or "they shall clap hands over Moab, in," &c.

27 For Israel hath been a derision unto thee: as though thou hadst found him amongst thieves: for thy words therefore, which thou hast spoken against him, thou shalt be led away captive.

Ver. 27.  Thieves.  C. ii. 26.  C.


--- Prot. "was he found among thieves? for since thou speakest of him, thou skippest for joy."  H.


--- Chaldee agrees with the Vulg. which is clearer.  C.


--- Sept. "hath he been found stealing from thee, since thou hast fought against him?"  Grabe subjoins, "Thou shalt go into banishment.  H.


--- As Moab was related to Israel, his derision was the more criminal, and more grievously punished.  W.


28 Leave the cities, and dwell in the rock, you that dwell in Moab: and be ye like the dove that maketh her nest in the mouth of the hole in the highest place.

Ver. 28.  Place.  Seek for shelter in the caverns and highest mountains.  H.

29 We have heard the pride of Moab, he is exceeding proud: his haughtiness, and his arrogancy, and his pride, and the loftiness of his heart.


30 I know, saith the Lord, his boasting, and that the strength thereof is not according to it, neither hath it endeavoured to do according as it was able.

Ver. 30.  Able.  He hath attempted too much.

31 Therefore will I lament for Moab, and I will cry out to all Moab, for the men of the brick wall that mourn.

Ver. 31.  Brick wall.  Heb. Kir-cheres, (Is. xvi. 7.  C.) "the city of the sun;" (Grot.) Ar, the capital.  The prophet joins in the mournful canticle, as was usual.  Lu. vii. 32.  C.


--- Those who boast of more than they have, are compared to an earthen wall.  W.

32 O vineyard of Sabama, I will weep for thee, with the mourning of Jazer: thy branches are gone over the sea, they are come even to the sea of Jazer: the robber hath rushed in upon thy harvest and thy vintage.

Ver. 32.  Jazer, or "more than for Jazer;" about six leagues to the north of Sebama, which had a rivulet communicating with the sea of Jazer.

33 Joy and gladness is taken away from Carmel, and from the land of Moab, and I have taken away the wine out of the presses: the treader of the grapes shall not sing the accustomed cheerful tune.

Ver. 33.  Carmel, which here denotes any fruitful vineyard or place.


--- The, &c.  Prot. "none shall tread with shouting, their shouting shall be no shouting."  Heb. hedad, "the cry" of the people in the vintage.  C.



Carmel. Not where Elias dwelt, but a city and mountain 10 miles east of Eleutheropolis. Nabal rendered it famous by his imprudence, (1 K. xxv.) and Saul by a triumphal arch, 1 K. xv. 12. --- Carmel, so famous for the miracles of Elias, 3 K. xviii. 20. Josephus (Bel. ii. 17,) places it 120 stadia south of Ptolemais. This range of mountains extended northward through the tribes of Issachar and of Zabulon. Pliny (v. 17,) speaks of a promontory and of a town of this name. Here also the god Carmel was adored, having an altar, but no temple or image, as the ancients had decreed. Nec simulacrum Deo aut templum, (sic tradidere majores) ara tantum et reverentia. Tacit. Hist. ii. 78. --- Vespasian consulted the priest Basilides. Carmel means "the vineyard of the Lord," or the excellent vineyard, &c. It was so rich and beautiful as to become proverbial. The spouse compares the head of his beloved to Carmel. C. vii. 5. Isaias (xxxii. 15,) foretels that the deserts shall be equal to Carmel. It was covered with wood and fruit. S. Jerom in Isai. x. 18. Jer. iv. 26. The city, which was built upon this mountain, and which Pliny calls by the same name, was formerly styled Ecbatana. The oracle had denounced to Cambyses that he should die at Ecbatana, and he concluded that the city of Media was meant; but it was "that of Syria," says Herodotus, (iii. 64,) where he died.

34 From the cry of Hesebon even to Eleale, and to Jasa, they have uttered their voice: from Segor to Oronaim, as a heifer of three years old: the waters also of Nemrim shall be very bad.

Ver. 34.  As a.  Lit. "the heifer;" a title of Oronaim, which was proud and ungovernable.  H.


--- Heb. also, "from Agelah to Salisa; the," &c.


--- Bad; abandoned.  Is. xv. 6.  C.

35 And I will take away from Moab, saith the Lord, him that offereth in the high places, and that sacrificeth to his gods.

36 Therefore my heart shall sound for Moab like pipes: and my heart a sound like pipes for the men of the brick wall: because he hath done more than he could, therefore they have perished.

Ver. 36.  Pipes.  Heb. chalilim, (H.) lyre or flutes.  Such were used at funerals of children; (Mat. ix. 23.) trumpets sounded for men.  Servius.


--- Could; opposing the conqueror of Asia.  v. 30. 31.  C.


--- Prot. "the riches that he hat gotten is perished."

37 For every head shall be bald, and every beard shall be shaven: all hands shall be tied together, and upon every back there shall be haircloth.

Ver. 37.  Shaven, or "clipt," (Prot.  H.) as in mourning.


--- Tied.  Heb. "cut."  C. xvi. 6.  C.


--- Such signs of mourning were usual in those countries.  The Romans let their hair grow.  Cic. pro Sestio.  W.


38 Upon all the housetops of Moab, and in the streets thereof general mourning: because I have broken Moab as an useless vessel, saith the Lord.

39 How is it overthrown, and they have howled! How hath Moab bowed down the neck, and is confounded! And Moab shall be a derision, and an example to all round about him.

Ver. 39.  Bowed.  Sept. and Chal. "turned his back."

40 Thus saith the Lord: Behold he shall fly as an eagle, and shall stretch forth his wings to Moab.

41 Carioth is taken, and the strong holds are won: and the heart of the valiant men of Moab in that day shall be as the heart of a woman in labour.

Ver. 41.  Carioth, probably Kir Hares, which the eagle of Babylon seized.  Sept. Rom. omits v. 40.  C.


--- Grabe supplies, Behold, &c. and here, the heart, &c.  H.


Carioth, 1 (Josh 15:25; S. Juda), rather Carioth Hesron, the birthplace of Judas, "the man of Carioth": Kh. el-Qureitein, S. of Hebron. — 2 (Amos 2:2; Jer 48:24, 41; Moabite Stone, 1. 13; Moab): prob. Er-Rabbâh. --- Carioth. Sept. "the cities." Carioth has this meaning, but is was also the name of a great city. Jer. xlviii. 24. H.

42 And Moab shall cease to be a people: because he hath gloried against the Lord.

Ver. 42.  Cease for a time, till he regain his liberty under Cyrus.  v. 47.

43 Fear, and the pit, and the snare come upon thee, O inhabitant of Moab, saith the Lord.

Ver. 43.  Fear.  It was customary to hand feathers near a wood, to frighten the prey into pits or nets.  Is. xxiv. 17.  Sanct.

44 He that shall flee from the fear, shall fall into the pit: and he that shall get up out of the pit, shall be taken in the snare: for I will bring upon Moab the year of their visitation, saith the Lord.


45 They that fled from the snare stood in the shadow of Hesebon: but there came a fire out of Kesebon, and a flame out of the midst of Seen, and it shall devour part of Moab. and the crown of the head of the children of tumult.

Ver. 45.  There...saith, &c. to the end of the chapter is supplied by Grabe.  His copy subjoins, "What Jeremias prophesied against all nations.  Thus," &c.  C. xxv. 15.  H.

46 Woe to thee, Moab, thou hast perished, O people of Chamos: for thy sons, and thy daughters are taken captives.

47 And I will bring back the captivity of Moab in the last days, saith the Lord. Hitherto the judgments of Moab.

Ver. 47.  Days.  When they, Elam and the other Gentiles, shall be converted to the faith of Christ.  We read of no other bringing back, (W.) though it might take place.  H.


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