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THE word of the Lord that came to Jeremias the prophet against the Gentiles,

Ver. 1.  Gentiles, to whom Jeremias was sent.  C. i. 5.  What follows regards them, (C.) if we except the last chapter.  H.


--- It was thought proper to place these predictions here, though out of their chronological order, to which the Sept. have more adhered, placing them after C. xxv.  C.


--- The punishment of the chief enemies of the Jews is foretold.  W.

2 Against Egypt, against the army of Pharao Nechao king of Egypt, which was by the river Euphrates in Charcamis, whom Nabuchodonosor the king of Babylon defeated, in the fourth year of Joakim the son of Josias king of Juda.

Ver. 2.  Nechao.  He slew Josias, and took all as far as Charcamis.  4 K. xxiii.  Four years after Nabopolasser associated his son, and sent him to conquer these countries, which he effected.  4 K. xxiv. 7.  Jos.



Charcamis belonged to the Assyrian monarch, (Isa. x. 9.) who subdued the empire of Babylon. C. xxxiii. 11.

3 Prepare ye the shield and buckler, and go forth to battle.

Ver. 3.  Prepare Egyptians, the enemy is at hand.  C.

4 Harness the horses, and get up, ye horsemen: stand forth with helmets, furbish the spears, put on coats of mail. 5 What then? I have seen them dismayed, and turning their backs, their valiant ones slain: they fled apace, and they looked not back: terror was round about, saith the Lord.

Ver. 5.  Seen.  The prophets usually speak as if things were already past.  W.

6 Let not the swift flee away, nor the strong think to escape: they are overthrown, and fallen down, towards the north by the river Euphrates.

Ver. 6.  Away.  It will be in vain.  C.


--- Nechao went to defend Charcamis, but lost "many myriads in the battle," and all the country "as far as Pelusium, except Judea."  Joseph.  x. 7.

7 Who is this that cometh up as a flood: and his streams swell like those of rivers?

Ver. 7.  Rivers.  He alludes to the Nile.  The king of Egypt had a numerous army.

8 Egypt riseth up like a hood, and the waves thereof shall be moved as rivers, and he shall say: I will go up and will cover the earth: I will destroy the city, and its inhabitants.

Ver. 8.  City; Babylon, and every fort which shall oppose my progress.  C.

9 Get ye up on horses, and glory in chariots, and let the valiant men come forth, the Ethiopians, and the Libyans that hold the shield, and the Lydians that take, and shoot arrows.

Ver. 9.  Men.  Soldiers formed one of the principal classes among the Egyptians.  Herod. ii. 164.


--- Ethiopians.  Heb. "Cush," in Lower Egypt, on the Red Sea.


--- Lybians.  Heb. "Phut, another son of Cham, inhabiting the Nome Phtenethu."  Ezec. xxx. 5.  Nah. iii. 2.


--- Lydians.  Their situation is not known.

10 For this is the day of the Lord the God of hosts, a day of vengeance, that he may revenge himself of his enemies: the sword shall devour, and shall be filled, and shall be drunk with their blood: for there is a sacrifice of the Lord God of hosts in the north country, by the river Euphrates.

Ver. 10.  Devour.  It seems animated, and eager to slay the victim.  Ezec. xxxix. 17.

11 Go up into Galaad, and take balm, O virgin daughter of Egypt: in vain dost thou multiply medicines, there shall be no cure for thee.

Ver. 11.  Of Egypt; or ye Egyptians, who have been wounded.  The balm (H.) or resina of Galaad was then very famous.  Gen. xxxvii. 25.  C.


--- Egypt thought itself invulnerable, and is derided.  Its cures was hopeless.  v. 16.  W.

12 The nations have heard of thy disgrace, and thy howling hath filled the land: for the strong hath stumbled against the strong, and both are fallen together.
13 The word that the Lord spoke to Jeremias the prophet, how Nabuchodonosor king of Babylon should come and strike the land of Egypt:

Ver. 13.  Egypt, under Apries, about thirty-five years after the former expedition.  C. xliv. 30.  Ezec. xxix. and xxxi. This country was invaded the last.  v. 14.

14 Declare ye to Egypt, and publish it in Magdal, and let it be known in Memphis, and in Taphnis: say ye: Stand up, and prepare thyself: for the sword shall devour all round about thee.


15 Why are thy valiant men come to nothing? they stood not: because the Lord hath overthrown them.

Ver. 15.  Men.  Lit. "man."  Heb. abir, (H.) where Apis has been perhaps formed.  C.


--- Sept. "Why has Apis (Comp. omits this word) fled from thee? thy calf, thy chosen one has not remained."  H.


--- He derides the chief idol of Egypt; or he alludes to those who fell at Charcamis, or rather who fled after they had come out to assist Sedecias.  C. xxxvii. 5.  Ezec. xxx. 21.

16 He hath multiplied them that fall, and one hath fallen upon another, and they shall say: Arise, and let us return to our own people, and to the land our nativity, from the sword of the dove.

Ver. 16.  Dove.  Heb. also, "of the destroyer."  Sept. "Greeks," or Ionians.  C.


--- See C. xxv. 35.  Ch.


--- Nebuchodonosor came with expedition, or had a dove on his standards.  M.

17 Call ye the name of Pharao king Egypt, a tumult time hath brought.

Ver. 17.  Pharao.  Sept. add, "Nechao."  But Apries seems rather to be meant.  C.


--- A.  Heb. shaon hehebir hamohed.  Prot. "is but a noise, he hath passed the time appointed;" (H.) or, "the height which the crowd (or God, who raised) hath displaced."  C.


--- Sept. retain the original: but the middle word varies in their copies.  H.


--- All the boasts of Pharao ended in smoke.  He lost the proper opportunity, and caused his own kingdom to be laid waste.  Syr. "the disturber, who deranges the times."  C.

18 As I live, (saith the King, whose name is the Lord of hosts,) as Thabor is among the mountains, and as Carmel by the sea, so shall he come.

Ver. 18.  He, the destroyer; (v. 16.) or "it," my word (H.) shall surely stand as long as the mountains, (C.) yea, longer than heaven and earth.  H.


--- My decrees shall be put in execution in spite of the efforts of man.  C.


Carmel. Not where Elias dwelt, but a city and mountain 10 miles east of Eleutheropolis. Nabal rendered it famous by his imprudence, (1 K. xxv.) and Saul by a triumphal arch, 1 K. xv. 12. --- Carmel, so famous for the miracles of Elias, 3 K. xviii. 20. Josephus (Bel. ii. 17,) places it 120 stadia south of Ptolemais. This range of mountains extended northward through the tribes of Issachar and of Zabulon. Pliny (v. 17,) speaks of a promontory and of a town of this name. Here also the god Carmel was adored, having an altar, but no temple or image, as the ancients had decreed. Nec simulacrum Deo aut templum, (sic tradidere majores) ara tantum et reverentia. Tacit. Hist. ii. 78. --- Vespasian consulted the priest Basilides. Carmel means "the vineyard of the Lord," or the excellent vineyard, &c. It was so rich and beautiful as to become proverbial. The spouse compares the head of his beloved to Carmel. C. vii. 5. Isaias (xxxii. 15,) foretels that the deserts shall be equal to Carmel. It was covered with wood and fruit. S. Jerom in Isai. x. 18. Jer. iv. 26. The city, which was built upon this mountain, and which Pliny calls by the same name, was formerly styled Ecbatana. The oracle had denounced to Cambyses that he should die at Ecbatana, and he concluded that the city of Media was meant; but it was "that of Syria," says Herodotus, (iii. 64,) where he died.

19 Furnish thyself to go into captivity, thou daughter inhabitant of Egypt: for Memphis shall be made desolate, and shall be forsaken and uninhabited.

Ver. 19.  Furnish.  Lit. "make thyself vessels of captivity," or pack up what thou mayst want there.  H.  Ezec. xii. 3. and xxix. 11. 


--- Many returned under Cyrus.  v. 26.

20 Egypt is like a fair and beautiful heifer: there shall come from the north one that shall goad her.

Ver. 20.  Goad her.  Nabuchodonosor shall subdue the country.

21 Her hirelings also that lived in the midst of her, like fatted calves are turned back, and are fled away together, and they could not stand, for the day of their slaughter is come upon them, the time of their visitation.

Ver. 21.  Hirelings.  Apries had thirty thousand Carians, &c. who were defeated by Amasis.  Herod. ii. 163.

22 Her voice shall sound like brass, for they shall hasten with an army, and with axes they shall come against her, as hewers of wood.

Ver. 22.  Brass.  Sept. "hissing serpent;" lamenting in secret.  Is. xxix. 4.


--- Wood.  Battle-axes were then used.  Great cities and monarchs shall fall.  Zac. xi. 2.  Ezec. xxxi. 3.  C.

23 They have cut down her forest, saith the Lord, which cannot be counted: they are multiplied above locusts, and are without number.

Ver. 23.  Above, or "more than locusts," (H.) which destroy all herbs where they light.

24 The daughter of Egypt is confounded, and delivered into the hand of the people of the north.

25 The Lord of hosts the God of Israel hath said: Behold I will visit upon the tumult of Alexandria, and upon Pharao, and upon Egypt, and upon her gods, and upon her kings, and upon Pharao, upon them that trust in him.

Ver. 25.  Visit upon.  That is, punish.


--- Alexandria.  In the Heb. No; which was the ancient name of the city, to which Alexander gave afterwards the name of Alexandria; (Ch.) or this city was built near Rachotes, the harbour.  "Ammon of No" was rather Diospolis, (Ezec. xxx. 14.  Sept.) in the Delta, north of Busiris.  Ammon was the chief god adored at No.  Nah. iii. 8.  Sept. Alex. "I will revenge myself on Ammon, her son, on Egypt, or Pharao, and on them."  H.


--- Ammon was of their invention, and for this the people were justly punished.  It means also, "a multitude."


--- Kings.  C. xlii. 12.  Apries was slain, (C. xliv. 33.  C.) and his two successors perished miserably by sentence of Cambyses.  Herod. iii. 14. and 16.


Alexandria. In the Heb. No, which was the ancient name of that city,a populous city of Egypt, destroyed by the Chaldeans, which was afterwards rebuilt by Alexander the Great, and from his name called Alexandria. Others suppose No-Amon to be the same as Diospolis. Ch. --- Alexandria. In the Heb. No; which was the ancient name of the city, to which Alexander gave afterwards the name of Alexandria; (Ch.) or this city was built near Rachotes, the harbour. "Ammon of No" was rather Diospolis, (Ezec. xxx. 14. Sept.) in the Delta, north of Busiris. Ammon was the chief god adored at No. Nah. iii. 8. Sept. Alex. "I will revenge myself on Ammon, her son, on Egypt, or Pharao, and on them." H.

26 And I will deliver them into the hand of them that seek their lives, into the hand of Nabuchodonosor king of Babylon, and into the hand of his servants: and afterwards it shall be inhabited, as in the days of old, saith the Lord.

Ver. 26.  Afterwards, forty years being expired (Ezec. xxix. 14.) from the time when Apries made his unsuccessful attack on Cyrene, and his subjects revolted.


27 And thou my servant Jacob, fear not and be not thou dismayed, O Israel: for behold I will save thee from afar off, and thy seed out of the land of thy captivity: and Jacob shall return and be at rest, and prosper: and there shall be none to terrify him.

Ver. 27.  Off from all countries, (C.) particularly from Egypt; (H.) on occasion of which country's deliverance, that of Jacob is foretold.  C.


--- If God would bring the Egyptians back, much more would he deliver the Jews.  W.


28 And thou, my servant Jacob, fear not, saith the Lord: because I am with thee, for I will consume all the nations to which I have cast thee out: but thee I will not consume, but I will correct thee in judgment, neither will I spare thee as if thou wert innocent.

Ver. 28.  Nations of Assyria, Chaldea, &c.  C. xxx. 11.  C.

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