Ver. 1. Gentiles, to whom Jeremias was sent. C. i. 5. What follows regards them, (C.) if we except the last chapter. H.
--- It was thought proper to place these predictions here, though out of their chronological order, to which the Sept. have more adhered, placing them after C. xxv. C.
--- The punishment of the chief enemies of the Jews is foretold. W.
Ver. 2. Nechao. He slew Josias, and took all as far as Charcamis. 4 K. xxiii. Four years after Nabopolasser associated his son, and sent him to conquer these countries, which he effected. 4 K. xxiv. 7. Jos.
CharcamisCharcamis belonged to the Assyrian monarch, (Isa. x. 9.) who subdued the empire of Babylon. C. xxxiii. 11.
Ver. 3. Prepare Egyptians, the enemy is at hand. C.
Ver. 5. Seen. The prophets usually speak as if things were already past. W.
Ver. 6. Away. It will be in vain. C.
--- Nechao went to defend Charcamis, but lost "many myriads in the battle," and all the country "as far as Pelusium, except Judea." Joseph. x. 7.
Ver. 7. Rivers. He alludes to the Nile. The king of Egypt had a numerous army.
Ver. 8. City; Babylon, and every fort which shall oppose my progress. C.
Ver. 9. Men. Soldiers formed one of the principal classes among the Egyptians. Herod. ii. 164.
--- Ethiopians. Heb. "Cush," in Lower Egypt, on the Red Sea.
--- Lybians. Heb. "Phut, another son of Cham, inhabiting the Nome Phtenethu." Ezec. xxx. 5. Nah. iii. 2.
--- Lydians. Their situation is not known.
Ver. 10. Devour. It seems animated, and eager to slay the victim. Ezec. xxxix. 17.
Ver. 11. Of Egypt; or ye Egyptians, who have been wounded. The balm (H.) or resina of Galaad was then very famous. Gen. xxxvii. 25. C.
--- Egypt thought itself invulnerable, and is derided. Its cures was hopeless. v. 16. W.
Ver. 13. Egypt, under Apries, about thirty-five years after the former expedition. C. xliv. 30. Ezec. xxix. and xxxi. This country was invaded the last. v. 14.
Ver. 15. Men. Lit. "man." Heb. abir, (H.) where Apis has been perhaps formed. C.
--- Sept. "Why has Apis (Comp. omits this word) fled from thee? thy calf, thy chosen one has not remained." H.
--- He derides the chief idol of Egypt; or he alludes to those who fell at Charcamis, or rather who fled after they had come out to assist Sedecias. C. xxxvii. 5. Ezec. xxx. 21.
Ver. 16. Dove. Heb. also, "of the destroyer." Sept. "Greeks," or Ionians. C.
--- See C. xxv. 35. Ch.
--- Nebuchodonosor came with expedition, or had a dove on his standards. M.
Ver. 17. Pharao. Sept. add, "Nechao." But Apries seems rather to be meant. C.
--- A. Heb. shaon hehebir hamohed. Prot. "is but a noise, he hath passed the time appointed;" (H.) or, "the height which the crowd (or God, who raised) hath displaced." C.
--- Sept. retain the original: but the middle word varies in their copies. H.
--- All the boasts of Pharao ended in smoke. He lost the proper opportunity, and caused his own kingdom to be laid waste. Syr. "the disturber, who deranges the times." C.
Ver. 18. He, the destroyer; (v. 16.) or "it," my word (H.) shall surely stand as long as the mountains, (C.) yea, longer than heaven and earth. H.
--- My decrees shall be put in execution in spite of the efforts of man. C.
CarmelCarmel. Not where Elias dwelt, but a city and mountain 10 miles east of Eleutheropolis. Nabal rendered it famous by his imprudence, (1 K. xxv.) and Saul by a triumphal arch, 1 K. xv. 12. --- Carmel, so famous for the miracles of Elias, 3 K. xviii. 20. Josephus (Bel. ii. 17,) places it 120 stadia south of Ptolemais. This range of mountains extended northward through the tribes of Issachar and of Zabulon. Pliny (v. 17,) speaks of a promontory and of a town of this name. Here also the god Carmel was adored, having an altar, but no temple or image, as the ancients had decreed. Nec simulacrum Deo aut templum, (sic tradidere majores) ara tantum et reverentia. Tacit. Hist. ii. 78. --- Vespasian consulted the priest Basilides. Carmel means "the vineyard of the Lord," or the excellent vineyard, &c. It was so rich and beautiful as to become proverbial. The spouse compares the head of his beloved to Carmel. C. vii. 5. Isaias (xxxii. 15,) foretels that the deserts shall be equal to Carmel. It was covered with wood and fruit. S. Jerom in Isai. x. 18. Jer. iv. 26. The city, which was built upon this mountain, and which Pliny calls by the same name, was formerly styled Ecbatana. The oracle had denounced to Cambyses that he should die at Ecbatana, and he concluded that the city of Media was meant; but it was "that of Syria," says Herodotus, (iii. 64,) where he died.
Ver. 19. Furnish. Lit. "make thyself vessels of captivity," or pack up what thou mayst want there. H. Ezec. xii. 3. and xxix. 11.
--- Many returned under Cyrus. v. 26.
Ver. 20. Goad her. Nabuchodonosor shall subdue the country.
Ver. 21. Hirelings. Apries had thirty thousand Carians, &c. who were defeated by Amasis. Herod. ii. 163.
Ver. 22. Brass. Sept. "hissing serpent;" lamenting in secret. Is. xxix. 4.
--- Wood. Battle-axes were then used. Great cities and monarchs shall fall. Zac. xi. 2. Ezec. xxxi. 3. C.
Ver. 23. Above, or "more than locusts," (H.) which destroy all herbs where they light.
Ver. 25. Visit upon. That is, punish.
--- Alexandria. In the Heb. No; which was the ancient name of the city, to which Alexander gave afterwards the name of Alexandria; (Ch.) or this city was built near Rachotes, the harbour. "Ammon of No" was rather Diospolis, (Ezec. xxx. 14. Sept.) in the Delta, north of Busiris. Ammon was the chief god adored at No. Nah. iii. 8. Sept. Alex. "I will revenge myself on Ammon, her son, on Egypt, or Pharao, and on them." H.
--- Ammon was of their invention, and for this the people were justly punished. It means also, "a multitude."
--- Kings. C. xlii. 12. Apries was slain, (C. xliv. 33. C.) and his two successors perished miserably by sentence of Cambyses. Herod. iii. 14. and 16.
AlexandriaAlexandria. In the Heb. No, which was the ancient name of that city,a populous city of Egypt, destroyed by the Chaldeans, which was afterwards rebuilt by Alexander the Great, and from his name called Alexandria. Others suppose No-Amon to be the same as Diospolis. Ch. --- Alexandria. In the Heb. No; which was the ancient name of the city, to which Alexander gave afterwards the name of Alexandria; (Ch.) or this city was built near Rachotes, the harbour. "Ammon of No" was rather Diospolis, (Ezec. xxx. 14. Sept.) in the Delta, north of Busiris. Ammon was the chief god adored at No. Nah. iii. 8. Sept. Alex. "I will revenge myself on Ammon, her son, on Egypt, or Pharao, and on them." H.
Ver. 26. Afterwards, forty years being expired (Ezec. xxix. 14.) from the time when Apries made his unsuccessful attack on Cyrene, and his subjects revolted.
Ver. 27. Off from all countries, (C.) particularly from Egypt; (H.) on occasion of which country's deliverance, that of Jacob is foretold. C.
--- If God would bring the Egyptians back, much more would he deliver the Jews. W.
Ver. 28. Nations of Assyria, Chaldea, &c. C. xxx. 11. C.