Ver. 1. Blocks; idols, (C.) and other occasions of sin. H.
Ver. 2. Swear, when requisite. C.
--- Thus thou wilt learn to confess one God. Theod.
--- If all were upright, oaths would be unnecessary. Mat. v. 34. But as they are not so, (C.) this may be a religious act. W.
--- Justice. These three conditions are essential. H.
--- Him; the people, (C.) or God. S. Jer.
--- An oath must attest God, and be used when a thing is true and of moment. W.
Ver. 3. Thorns. Your misconduct hinders your advancement. C.
Ver. 4. Hearts. Understand, and act with purity. H.
Ver. 5. Cities. Nabuchodonosor is at hand.
Ver. 7. Robber. Nabuchodonosor attacks unjustly, (C.) though he be God's scourge.
Ver. 9. Heart; counsel and vigour.
--- Prophets of falsehood.
Ver. 10. Alas! Prot. "Then I said: Ah! Lord God, surely thou hast deceived," &c. (H.) by permitting the people to follow false prophets. Is. lxi. 17. Ps. xliii. 19.
Ver. 11. Desert of Arabia. It may designate Nechao, (2 Par. xxxv. 20.) who slew Josias, after whose death all fell to ruin.
Ver. 15. Ephraim. At Bethel and Dan the calves were adored. C.
--- But they were now no more. H.
--- The irruption of Nabuchodonosor is announced. He set himself up for a god.
Ver. 16. Guards. The Chaldees will besiege the city, and prevent provisions from entering. 4 K. xxv. 1. C.
Ver. 19. My. God, (S. Jer.) the people, (Grot.) or rather Jeremias speaks.
Ver. 20. Moment. The cities are destroyed as easily as a tent.
Ver. 22. Me, practically. They have not honoured me as they ought. C.
--- If they were indeed devoid of sense, they would be excused. W.
Ver. 23. Void. Heb. "Thohu and bohu," like chaos. Gen. i. 2. H.
Ver. 25. Gone. Beasts feel the wrath of God, and in a land uninhabited; not even birds will remain. Osee iv. 3. S. Jer.
Ver. 26. Carmel: the beautiful country of Palestine, (H.) Jerusalem, (Theod.) or the mountain so called.
CarmelCarmel. Not where Elias dwelt, but a city and mountain 10 miles east of Eleutheropolis. Nabal rendered it famous by his imprudence, (1 K. xxv.) and Saul by a triumphal arch, 1 K. xv. 12. --- Carmel, so famous for the miracles of Elias, 3 K. xviii. 20. Josephus (Bel. ii. 17,) places it 120 stadia south of Ptolemais. This range of mountains extended northward through the tribes of Issachar and of Zabulon. Pliny (v. 17,) speaks of a promontory and of a town of this name. Here also the god Carmel was adored, having an altar, but no temple or image, as the ancients had decreed. Nec simulacrum Deo aut templum, (sic tradidere majores) ara tantum et reverentia. Tacit. Hist. ii. 78. --- Vespasian consulted the priest Basilides. Carmel means "the vineyard of the Lord," or the excellent vineyard, &c. It was so rich and beautiful as to become proverbial. The spouse compares the head of his beloved to Carmel. C. vii. 5. Isaias (xxxii. 15,) foretels that the deserts shall be equal to Carmel. It was covered with wood and fruit. S. Jerom in Isai. x. 18. Jer. iv. 26. The city, which was built upon this mountain, and which Pliny calls by the same name, was formerly styled Ecbatana. The oracle had denounced to Cambyses that he should die at Ecbatana, and he concluded that the city of Media was meant; but it was "that of Syria," says Herodotus, (iii. 64,) where he died.
Ver. 27. Destroy, when Jechonias was led captive. God allowed the people still eleven years to repent; and he afterwards restored the Jews. C.
--- He will never suffer his church to perish. W.
Ver. 28. Repented. Only a finite being can do this. God's resolution is here unconditional and fixed.
Ver. 30. Stone, or antimony, like Jazabel, (4 K. ix. 30.) to darken and enlarge the eye-lids.
--- Lovers. Infidel nations of Egypt, &c.
Ver. 31. Child. Heb. and Sept. "a first-born," when the pains are most acute. C.