Ver. 2. Espousals. He speaks ironically. Theod.
--- Yet the Israelites at first shewed greater proofs of love than they did afterwards. It is true they often prevaricated, in the wilderness. Ex. xxxii. 1. Amos v. 25. Ps. lxxvii. &c. C.
--- The Lord declares his gratuitous love, and then upbraids his people. H.
--- He had caused them to multiply in Egypt, and gratuitously made choice of them. W.
Ver. 3. Increase; most desirable. Osee ix. 10. God punished those who attempted to injure his people: yet they abandoned his service.
Ver. 5. Vanity; idols, whom he will not mention, to spare their shame. C.
Ver. 7. Carmel. That is, a fruitful, plentiful land. Ch. W.
--- All Palestine is thus designated. M.
CarmelCarmel. Not where Elias dwelt, but a city and mountain 10 miles east of Eleutheropolis. Nabal rendered it famous by his imprudence, (1 K. xxv.) and Saul by a triumphal arch, 1 K. xv. 12. --- Carmel, so famous for the miracles of Elias, 3 K. xviii. 20. Josephus (Bel. ii. 17,) places it 120 stadia south of Ptolemais. This range of mountains extended northward through the tribes of Issachar and of Zabulon. Pliny (v. 17,) speaks of a promontory and of a town of this name. Here also the god Carmel was adored, having an altar, but no temple or image, as the ancients had decreed. Nec simulacrum Deo aut templum, (sic tradidere majores) ara tantum et reverentia. Tacit. Hist. ii. 78. --- Vespasian consulted the priest Basilides. Carmel means "the vineyard of the Lord," or the excellent vineyard, &c. It was so rich and beautiful as to become proverbial. The spouse compares the head of his beloved to Carmel. C. vii. 5. Isaias (xxxii. 15,) foretels that the deserts shall be equal to Carmel. It was covered with wood and fruit. S. Jerom in Isai. x. 18. Jer. iv. 26. The city, which was built upon this mountain, and which Pliny calls by the same name, was formerly styled Ecbatana. The oracle had denounced to Cambyses that he should die at Ecbatana, and he concluded that the city of Media was meant; but it was "that of Syria," says Herodotus, (iii. 64,) where he died.
Ver. 8. Priests were silent, or abandoned themselves.
--- Pastors; "princes." Chal. Manasses, Amon, &c.
--- In Baal, promoting his worship. H.
--- The land was full of false prophets, and none stood up for the Lord.
BaalBaal (1Chron 4:33), probably identical with Baalath Beer Ramath (Josh 19:8; Simeon), poss. Biâr Mãyîn, or Tell el-Lekiyeh, N. of Bersabee. Baal, or Ballath. Jos. xix. 1.
Ver. 9. Children; the Israelites, under Moses, and their posterity transgressed.
Ver. 10. Cethim; Macedon. It here denotes the western nations, as Cedar does those of the east.
CedarCedar: Arabia, (Ch.) near to Edom. C. --- Cedar and Nabaioth sprung from Ismael, and dwelt in desert Arabia, under tents, feeding flocks. S. Jer. Ezec. xxvii. 21.
CethimCethim; Cyrus, or rather Macedonia. --- Cethim; Macedon. It here denotes the western nations, as Cedar does those of the east.
Ver. 11. Glory; the true God and his ark. Ps. iii. 4. and 1 K. iv. 21.
Ver. 12. Gates; angels, or the temple.
Ver. 13. Water. The idols and nations, to which they have had recourse, injure them. C.
--- The Jews did just the reverse to what God commanded. W.
Ver. 14. Slave. From such, labour and tribute were required. Mat. xvii. 24. Jo. viii. 33.
Ver. 15. Lions; kings of Assyria, &c. The decree for the devastation of Juda had already passed, though it was not put in execution.
Ver. 16. Taphnes, 16 miles from Pelusium, in Egypt. The nation proved only detrimental to the Jews, by engaging them in their abominations, instead of affording relief.
Ver. 18. Troubled. Heb. shichor, or Nile water, (Jos. xiii. 3.) which was thought as good as wine, and grew better for keeping. Strabo xvii.
--- Hence the people adored it. Vitruv. viii.
--- God often reproached the Jews for distrusting in his protection, and seeking aid from the Egyptians, who deceived them. We know not that Josias did so. C.
--- He even opposed them, and lost his life in defending the country. 4 K. xxiii. 29. H.
--- He was probably obliged to pay tribute to the Assyrians, whom Achaz had called in. 2 Par. xxviii. 23. These alliances the Lord condemned.
Ver. 20. Thou. Sept. Yet Heb. and Chal. have, "I have permissively broken," or foretold this infidelity.
Ver. 21. Chosen. Heb. Sorek. Judg. xvi. 4. Is. v. 2. and xvi. 8. C.
--- God created all things good, planted his Church in justice, and no evil proceeds from Him. W.
Ver. 22. Borith. An herb used to clean clothes, and take out spots and dirt, (Ch.) like kali, soda, (C.) or soap. Langius.
--- Prot. "and take thee much soap." H.
Ver. 23. Valley of Hinnom, under the very walls of Jerusalem. C.
--- Runner. Heb. "dromedary," which takes its name from its swiftness. H.
--- The female camel continues all day with the male, and cannot be approached. Aristot. Pliny x. 63.
--- Juda is represented as no less libidinous. C.
Ver. 24. Away. The female may easily be found by the poisonous hippo-manes. Georg. iii.
--- Thus Jerusalem is an impudent prostitute. H.
Ver. 25. Foot, and the parts which modesty covers. My exhortations are slighted. C.
--- Despair opens the door to every sort of impurity. Eph. iv. 19. H.
Ver. 26. Taken. Juda affected still to be very pious. v. 23.
Ver. 28. Cities. All were abandoned. Ezec. xvi. 24. Osee x. 1.
Ver. 30. Prophets; Zacharias, (2 Par. xxiv. 21.) Isaias, &c. Mat. xxiii. 34. C.
--- Punishment is designed by God to cause people to repent. W.
Ver. 31. See, or hear. The sword seems to be animated. C.
--- Lateward. Heb. "darksome land." Have I not heaped blessings on my people?
--- Revolted. Prot. "Lords." H.
Ver. 33. Thou who. Heb. "Therefore have I." C.
--- Prot. "hast thou also taught the wicked ones thy ways." H.
--- Thou hast opened a school of vice.
Ver. 34. Innocent children, immolated to Moloc, or people murdered, whose blood thou hast not concealed. 4 K. xxi. 16.
AssyriaAssyria. The successors of Cyrus now ruled over those countries, (C.) which had belonged to the most potent Assyrian and Chaldean monarchs; and therefore the titles are given to them indiscriminately. T.
Ver. 37. Head, like the violated Thamar. 2 K. xiii. 19. The king of Egypt was routed, when coming to assist Sedecias. C. xxxvii. 3. 10. C.