Ver. 1. Days. At the end of the third year. Dan. i. 1. Jer. xxv. 1. Nabuchadonosor, in the first year of his reign, (Jer. ib.) being associated in the empire by his aged father Nabopolassar, came up to attack Carchemis, (Jer. xlvi. 1.) and the other dominions of Egypt, (v. 7.) and their ally or vassal Joakim. He took the city of Jerusalem, and carried off many of the sacred vessels, and captives, (Dan. i. C.) conducting the king himself to prison, for a short time, when he set him at liberty, on condition that he should pay tribute. 2 Par. xxxvi. 6. T.
--- Joakim obeyed for 3 years.
--- Then again. Heb. "he turned and rebelled." This was the first time, as he had before been subject to Egypt, and was attacked no that account. He probably took advantage of the absence of Nabuchodonosor, who was gone with haste to secure all the dominions of his deceased father. In the 7th year of his reign, he sent rovers to punish Joakim. When the latter had reigned near 11 years, they reduced the kingdom, and treated the king's corpse with the utmost indignity. Jer. xxii. 19. T.
Ver. 2. The rovers. Latrunculos. Bands or parties of men, who pillaged and plundered wherever they came. Ch. See C. v. 2. and Judg. xi. 3.
--- Nabuchodonosor could not come in person.
--- Prophets. Holda, sup. C. xxii. 16. Isaias C. xx. 17. Jeremias xiv. xv. xvi. &c.
Ver. 5. Did. Paral. And his abominations which he wrought, and the things which were found in him. This S. Jerom, (Trad.) explains of certain diabolical marks on his body, shewing him to be devoted to the fiend Codonasar. Suchar are often found on magicians. M.
--- Thus the priests of Baal cut themselves. 3 K. xviii. 28. H.
Ver. 6. Joachin, who is styled Jechonias, Mat. i. and Conias Jer. xxii. 24. The prophet counts his reign as nothing, because it was so limited by the Chaldees, and continued only three months. Jer. xxxvi. 30.
Ver. 7. Egypt, at least from the eastern mouth of the Nile, at Damietta, to the Euphrates. Nechao had conquered all those countries: but now he was driven into his ancient territories. After some time he attempted to relieve Sedecias, but war repulsed by Nabuchodonosor, who soon after took Jerusalem, Jer. xxxvii. 6. C.
--- Again, during the reign of Joachin. D.
Ver. 8. Eighteen. One Heb. MS. reads "thirteen," (H.) or 3 instead of 8. Kennicott.
--- The number seems also (H.) to be incorrect in Paral. where we find that Joachin was only eight years old, as the Syr. and Arab. have 18 in both places, and it could not well be said, that he did evil, &c. (v. 9.) at the age of 8, much less that he had wives so soon, v. 15. C.
--- Some attempt to reconcile both places, by saying that the eight years refer to the commencement of his father's reign; (Jun.) which is very unusual: (C.) or to the servitude of Babylon, when Jerusalem was taken under Joakim. Hardouin.
--- Sanctius conjectures that Joachin was associated with his father when he was 10 years old, and after 8 years became sole king. Kimchi, &c. D.
Ver. 9. Done. Ezechiel xix. 5. and Jeremias xxii. 24. speak of this king under the name of (H.) Jechonias. C.
Ver. 10. Came. Heb. "servants...he came." But several MSS. are more accurate and grammatical, "they came." Kennicott. H.
Ver. 12. Went out. Josephus (Bel. vi. 8.) insinuates, to save the vessels of the temple.
--- Jeremias had persuaded him to desist from making resistance. T.
--- Nabuchodonosor did not comply with his promise, (M.) but took the king and all the artificers (v. 14.) to Babylon, that the former might not attempt to revenge the injuries done to his father, nor the latter contribute to fortify the towns. The Philistines had deprived the Israelites of blacksmiths, with the same design. 1 K. vii. and xiii. Angelomus. T.
--- Eighth; commencing, or at the end of the seventh. Jer. lii. D.
Ver. 13. All, or a great part; for some were still left. 1 Esd. i.
--- Which: or like unto those which Solomon had made. The identical vessels had been perhaps (D.) plundered. M.
--- Nabuchodonosor took away the sacred vessels at three different times: 1. under Joakim. These he placed in the temple of his god; and they were afterwards profaned by Baltassar, and restored by Cyrus. Dan. i. 2. and v. 2. and 1 Esd. i. 7. 2. Many he now broke in pieces. 3. Under Sedecias, he took probably what that prince had made. C. xxv. 13. Bar. i. 7
--- Lord, by Isaias (xxxix. 6. Sup. C. xx. 17.) and Jeremias, xv. 13.
Ver. 14. All; the chief men. C. xxv. 18. Ezechiel and Mardocheus were in the number.
--- Engraver. The first term means a workman in wood, stone, &c.; the latter seems to designate a mason, smith, or garrison-soldier; (C.) or one expert in making camps; (Sa.) an engineer. T.
--- S. Jerom explains it of one who enchases jewels in gold. M.
--- Hecateus and Demetrius (ap. Jos. and Clem.Alex.) mention this transportation. D.
Ver. 15. Judges. Heb. "the rams." Chal. "the grandees." These are not included in the 10,000, (v. 14.) nor more than (C.) the 8,000 who were taken from the country (v. 16. C.;) or 3,000 were taken from Jerusalem, and 7,000 from other places. D.
Ver. 17. Uncle, the third son of Josias, who was placed on the throne. H.
--- The eldest, (M.) called Johanan, seems to have died in his youth. C.
--- Sedecias means, "the justice of God," (T.) as Nabuchodonosor had adjured him, or made him swear by God; (2 Par. xxxvi. 15. H.) and thus insinuated, that, if he proved faithless, he should feel the effects of God's justice, as it happened. T.
Ver. 19. Done. He was not deterred by his punishment, nor by the admonition of Jeremias, xxxvii. 2. and 2 Par. xxxvi. 12. The prophet informs us, that the priests and people defiled the temple of God. See Ezechiel viii. &c. C.
Ver. 20. Revolted. Lit. "departed;" (H.) "broke his covenant;" (Sept.) acting contrary to his oath, (Par.) and to the dictates of prudence. God permitted this to take place, in the 8th year of Sedecias. C.