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IN his days Nabuchodonosor king of Babylon came up, and Joakim became his servant three years: then again he rebelled against him.

Ver. 1.  Days.  At the end of the third year.  Dan. i. 1.  Jer. xxv. 1.  Nabuchadonosor, in the first year of his reign, (Jer. ib.) being associated in the empire by his aged father Nabopolassar, came up to attack Carchemis, (Jer. xlvi. 1.) and the other dominions of Egypt, (v. 7.) and their ally or vassal Joakim.  He took the city of Jerusalem, and carried off many of the sacred vessels, and captives, (Dan. i.  C.) conducting the king himself to prison, for a short time, when he set him at liberty, on condition that he should pay tribute.  2 Par. xxxvi. 6.  T.

 

--- Joakim obeyed for 3 years.

 

--- Then again.  Heb. "he turned and rebelled."  This was the first time, as he had before been subject to Egypt, and was attacked no that account.  He probably took advantage of the absence of Nabuchodonosor, who was gone with haste to secure all the dominions of his deceased father.  In the 7th year of his reign, he sent rovers to punish Joakim.  When the latter had reigned near 11 years, they reduced the kingdom, and treated the king's corpse with the utmost indignity.  Jer. xxii. 19.  T.



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2 And the Lord sent against him the rovers of the Chaldees, and the rovers of Syria, and the rovers of Moab, and the rovers of the children of Ammon: and he sent them against Juda, to destroy it, according to the word of the Lord, which he had spoken by his servants the prophets.

Ver. 2.  The rovers. Latrunculos.  Bands or parties of men, who pillaged and plundered wherever they came.  Ch.  See C. v. 2. and Judg. xi. 3.

 

--- Nabuchodonosor could not come in person.

 

--- Prophets.  Holda, sup. C. xxii. 16.  Isaias C. xx. 17.  Jeremias xiv. xv. xvi. &c.



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3 And this came by the word of the Lord against Juda, to remove them from before him for all the sins of Manasses which he did.


4 And for the innocent blood that he shed, filling Jerusalem with innocent blood: and therefore the Lord would not be appeased.

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5 But the rest of the acts of Joakim, and all that he did, are they not written in the book of the words of the days of the kings of Juda? And Joakim slept with his fathers:

Ver. 5.  Did.  Paral. And  his abominations which he wrought, and the things which were found in him.  This S. Jerom, (Trad.) explains of certain diabolical marks on his body, shewing him to be devoted to the fiend Codonasar.  Suchar are often found on magicians.  M.

 

--- Thus the priests of Baal cut themselves.  3 K. xviii. 28.  H.




6 And Joachin his son reigned in his stead.

Ver. 6.  Joachin, who is styled Jechonias, Mat. i. and Conias Jer. xxii. 24.  The prophet counts his reign as nothing, because it was so limited by the Chaldees, and continued only three months.  Jer. xxxvi. 30.


7 And the king of Egypt came not again any more out of his own country: for the king of Babylon had taken all that had belonged to the king of Egypt, from the river of Egypt, unto the river Euphrates.

Ver. 7.  Egypt, at least from the eastern mouth of the Nile, at Damietta, to the Euphrates.  Nechao had conquered all those countries: but now he was driven into his ancient territories.  After some time he attempted to relieve Sedecias, but war repulsed by Nabuchodonosor, who soon after took Jerusalem, Jer. xxxvii. 6.  C.

 

--- Again, during the reign of Joachin.  D.




8 Joachin was eighteen years old when he began to reign, and he reigned three months in Jerusalem: the name of his mother was Nohesta the daughter of Elnathan of Jerusalem.

Ver. 8.  Eighteen.  One Heb. MS. reads "thirteen," (H.) or 3 instead of 8.  Kennicott.

 

--- The number seems also (H.) to be incorrect in Paral. where we find that Joachin was only eight years old, as the Syr. and Arab. have 18 in both places, and it could not well be said, that he did evil, &c. (v. 9.) at the age of 8, much less that he had wives so soon, v. 15.  C.

 

--- Some attempt to reconcile both places, by saying that the eight years refer to the commencement of his father's reign; (Jun.) which is very unusual: (C.) or to the servitude of Babylon, when Jerusalem was taken under Joakim.  Hardouin.

 

--- Sanctius conjectures that Joachin was associated with his father when he was 10 years old, and after 8 years became sole king.  Kimchi, &c.  D.




9 And he did evil before the Lord, according to all that his father had done.

Ver. 9.  Done.  Ezechiel xix. 5. and Jeremias xxii. 24. speak of this king under the name of (H.) Jechonias.  C.


10 At that time the servants of Nabuchodonosor king of Babylon came up against Jerusalem, and the city was surrounded with their forts.

Ver. 10.  Came.  Heb. "servants...he came."  But several MSS. are more accurate and grammatical, "they came."  Kennicott.  H.



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11 And Nabuchodonosor king of Babylon came to the city with his servants to assault it.


12 And Joachin king of Juda went out to the king of Babylon, he end his mother, and his servants, and his nobles, and his eunuchs: and the king of Babylon received him in the eighth year of his reign.

Ver. 12.  Went out.  Josephus (Bel. vi. 8.) insinuates, to save the vessels of the temple.

 

--- Jeremias had persuaded him to desist from making resistance.  T.

 

--- Nabuchodonosor did not comply with his promise, (M.) but took the king and all the artificers (v. 14.) to Babylon, that the former might not attempt to revenge the injuries done to his father, nor the latter contribute to fortify the towns.  The Philistines had deprived the Israelites of blacksmiths, with the same design.  1 K. vii. and xiii.  Angelomus.  T.

 

--- Eighth; commencing, or at the end of the seventh.  Jer. lii.  D.




13 And he brought out from thence all the treasures of the house of the Lord, and the treasures of the king's house: and he cut in pieces all the vessels of gold which Solomon king of Israel had made in the temple of the Lord, according to the word of the Lord.

Ver. 13.  All, or a great part; for some were still left.  1 Esd. i.

 

--- Which: or like unto those which Solomon had made.  The identical vessels had been perhaps (D.) plundered.  M.

 

--- Nabuchodonosor took away the sacred vessels at three different times: 1. under Joakim.  These he placed in the temple of his god; and they were afterwards profaned by Baltassar, and restored by Cyrus.  Dan. i. 2. and v. 2. and 1 Esd. i. 7.  2. Many he now broke in pieces.  3. Under Sedecias, he took probably what that prince had made.  C. xxv. 13.  Bar. i. 7

 

--- Lord, by Isaias (xxxix. 6.  Sup. C. xx. 17.) and Jeremias, xv. 13.



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14 And he carried away all Jerusalem, and all the princes, and all the valiant men of the army, to the number of ten thousand into captivity: and every artificer and smith: and none were left, but the poor sort of the people of the land.

Ver. 14.  All; the chief men.  C. xxv. 18.  Ezechiel and Mardocheus were in the number.

 

--- Engraver.  The first term means a workman in wood, stone, &c.; the latter seems to designate a mason, smith, or garrison-soldier; (C.) or one expert in making camps; (Sa.) an engineer.  T.

 

--- S. Jerom explains it of one who enchases jewels in gold.  M.

 

--- Hecateus and Demetrius (ap. Jos. and Clem.Alex.) mention this transportation.  D.




15 And he carried away Joachin into Babylon, and the king's mother, and the king's wives, and his eunuchs: and the judges of the land he carried into captivity from Jerusalem into Babylon.

Ver. 15.  Judges.  Heb. "the rams."  Chal. "the grandees."  These are not included in the 10,000, (v. 14.) nor more than (C.) the 8,000 who were taken from the country (v. 16.  C.;) or 3,000 were taken from Jerusalem, and 7,000 from other places.  D.



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16 And all the strong men, seven thousand, and the artificers, and the smiths a thousand, all that were valiant men and fit for war: and the king of Babylon led them captives into Babylon.


17 And he appointed Matthanias his uncle in his stead: and called his name Sedecias.

Ver. 17.  Uncle, the third son of Josias, who was placed on the throne.  H.

 

--- The eldest, (M.) called Johanan, seems to have died in his youth.  C.

 

--- Sedecias means, "the justice of God," (T.) as Nabuchodonosor had adjured him, or made him swear by God; (2 Par. xxxvi. 15.  H.) and thus insinuated, that, if he proved faithless, he should feel the effects of God's justice, as it happened.  T.



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18 Sedecias was one and twenty years old when he began to reign, and he reigned eleven years in Jerusalem: the name of his mother was Amital, the daughter of Jeremias of Lobna.


19 And he did evil before the Lord, according to all that Joakim had done.

Ver. 19.  Done.  He was not deterred by his punishment, nor by the admonition of Jeremias, xxxvii. 2. and 2 Par. xxxvi. 12.  The prophet informs us, that the priests and people defiled the temple of God.  See Ezechiel viii. &c.  C.


20 For the Lord was angry against Jerusalem and against Juda, till he cast them out from his face: and Sedecias revolted from the king of Babylon.

Ver. 20.  Revolted.  Lit. "departed;" (H.) "broke his covenant;" (Sept.) acting contrary to his oath, (Par.) and to the dictates of prudence.  God permitted this to take place, in the 8th year of Sedecias.  C.




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