Gen Ex Lev Num Deut Josh Judg Ruth 1 Sam 2 Sam 1 Ki 2 Ki 1 Chron 2 Chron Ezra Neh Tob Jdt Esth Job Ps Prov Eccles Song Wis Sir Isa Jer Lam Bar Ezek Dan Hos Joel Amos Obad Jon Mic Nah Hab Zeph Hag Zech Mal 1 Mac 2 Mac
AND they brought the king word again what she had said. And he sent: and all the ancients of Juda and Jerusalem were assembled to him.

Loading...




2 And the king went up to the temple of the Lord, and all the men of Juda, and all the inhabitants of Jerusalem with him, the priests and the prophets, and all the people both little and great: and in the hearing of them all he read all the words of the book of the covenant, which was found in the house of the Lord.

Ver. 2.  Prophets.  Chal. "scribes."  But there were many prophets at this time, who were ordered to come and renew the covenant with God.

 

--- He read, in person, acting as a mediator, in imitation of Moses, Josue, Samuel, Joiada, and Ezechias.  C.




3 And the king stood upon the step: and made a covenant with the Lord, to walk after the Lord, and to keep his commandments, and his testimonies and his ceremonies, with all their heart, and with all their soul, and to perform the words of this covenant, which were written in that book: and the people agreed to the covenant.

Ver. 3.  The step.  His tribune or tribunal, a more eminent place, from whence he might be seen and heard by the people.  Ch.

 

--- This brazen tribune is described C. xi. 14.  2 Par. vi. 12.

 

--- To the covenant, but with much less exactitude than the king.  C.


4 And the king commanded Helcias the high priest, and the priests of the second order, and the doorkeepers, to cast out of the temple of the Lord all the vessels that had been made for Baal, and for the grove, and for all the host of heaven: and he burnt them without Jerusalem in the valley of Cedron, and he carried the ashes of them to Bethel.

Ver. 4.  Order, who presided over the 24 classes of inferior priests.  M.

 

--- Jonathas understands it of those who supplied the place of the high priest when he could not attend.  Grotius.

 

--- Baal, the sun: (C.) in Heb. "for."

 

--- The grove, Astarte, or the moon.  H.

 

--- Cedron, to the east and south of Jerusalem, where Topheth and the sepulchres of the poor, and all unclean things, were placed.  Here the pagans burnt their children in honour of Moloch.  See 3 K. xv. 13.  2 Par. xxix. 16. and xxx. 14.

 

--- Bethel, out of contempt for the golden calf, (H.) and to remove those impurities to a greater distance.  C.



Loading...



Baal

Baal (1Chron 4:33), probably identical with Baalath Beer Ramath (Josh 19:8; Simeon), poss. Biâr Mãyîn, or Tell el-Lekiyeh, N. of Bersabee. Baal, or Ballath. Jos. xix. 1.

Bethel

Bethel, 1 see s.v. — 2 (Josh 12:16; Simeon) another name for Bethul. --- Bethel, as it was called in the days of Moses, being the ancient Luza. C. --- Bethel signifies the house of God, being honoured with two altars. H.

Cedron

Cedron. Heb. nachal Kidron, may signify, "the shady torrent," or "vale," as it is styled by Josephus. It does not take its name from cedars. It is dry in summer, and when filled with water, in only three steps across. Doubdan xxvii. --- Cedron, to the east and south of Jerusalem, where Topheth and the sepulchres of the poor, and all unclean things, were placed. Here the pagans burnt their children in honour of Moloch. See 3 K. xv. 13. 2 Par. xxix. 16. and xxx. 14.

Brook of Cedron

[Hebrew Náhál Qidhrôn, "Wâdi Qidron"; only once "fields of Qidron"; John 18:1, ho cheimarros ho Kedron; in R.V., Kidron]. The name designates in Holy Writ the ravine on the east of Jerusalem, between the Holy City and the Mount of Olives. The word Cedron is usually connected with the root Qadár, "to be dark", and taken to refer to the colour of the stream or ravine; but its exact origin and precise meaning are really unknown. The Valley of Cedron begins with a slight depression near the Tombs of the Judges, a mile and a quarter north-west of Jerusalem. It runs first south towards the Holy city, and then turns nearly east, passing to the north of the tombs of the Kings. Next, it bends to the right towards the south, deepening as it follows this general direction between Jerusalem and the Mount of Olives. Opposite St. Stephen's gate, it is fully 100 feet deep and about 400 feet broad; its bed is shaded by venerable olive-trees and crossed by an old bridge. Below the bridge, the valley presents the first traces of a torrent bed. It narrows gradually and sinks more rapidly leaving to the east the church of the tomb of the Blessed Virgin, and next, Gethsemani. A thousand feet from the old bridge, the valley is merely a deep gulley across which another bridge is thrown, and on the banks of which are, to the right, Mohammedan tombs, and to the left, the sepulchres of Josaphat, Absalom, St. James, and the Jewish cemetery. About a thousand feet farther, there is in a cave, on the right bank, the Fountain of the Virgin, and higher up, on the left, the village of Siloe. Somewhat farther down, the Tyropoeon valley falls from the right into the Cedron, which now expands down to the Valley of Hinnom. Here, the Cedron is about 200 yards wide, and has on its left the Mount of Offence. Shortly after the junction of the Valley of Hinom with the Cedron, there is Job's well, to the south of which Sir C. Warren found, in 1868-69, the shaft of a great rock-cut aqueduct. On leaving the Holy City, the Valley of the Cedron runs its winding and gradually precipitous course through the Wilderness of Judea to the north-western shore of the Dead Sea. The Cedron is perfectly dry during the summer and most of the winter. North of Jerusalem, it bears the name of Wâdi al-Jos (Valley of Nuts); between the city and the Mount of Olives, it is known as Wâdi Sitti Mariam (Valley of St. Mary), or again as the Valley of Josaphat (cf. Joel, iii, 2, 12); after leaving Jerusalem, it is called Wâdi en-Nâr (Valley of Fire), and also Wâdi er-Rahib (Valley of the Monks). Its whole length is some 20 miles in a straight line, and its descent nearly 4000 feet. Its bed east of Jerusalem is now about 40 feet higher than in ancient times. The Cedron is first mentioned in Holy Scripture in connection with David's flight from Absalom, during which he crossed it [2 Samuel 15:23]; and next, in connection with the prohibition to Semei against his ever crossing it [1 Kings 2:37]. It was at the torrent Cedron that King Asa burnt the filthy idol of his mother [1 Kings 15:13; 2 Chronicles 15:16]. It was into it that Ezechias and Josias cast all the impurities which had polluted the House of the Lord (cf. 2 Chronicles 29:16; 30:14; 2 Kings 23:4, 6, 12). The torrent Cedron is last mentioned in the O.T. in Jeremiah 31:40, apparently as part of the common cemetery of Jerusalem. In the New Testament it is spoken of only once, in connection with Christ's going forth over it to Gethsemani (John 18:1). In the present day it is the desired resting-place of both Jews and Mussulmans, and the supposed scene of Last Judgment.

5 And he destroyed the soothsayers, whom the kings of Juda had appointed to sacrifice in the high places in the cities of Juda, and round about Jerusalem: them also that burnt incense to Baal, and to the sun, and to the moon, and to the twelve signs, and to all the host of heaven.

Ver. 5.  Soothsayers.  Prot. "the idolatrous priests."  Grotius thinks that camilli, or "ministers of the gods," (Serv. and Varro. vi.) may be derived from the Heb. hacemarim, "the black-vested," or cryers.  The Rabbins give this title in derision to the religious of the Christian Church.  There were some melanophori, or people "in black," who honoured Isis, or the moon, by this dress; as if to condole with her on the absence of the sun. Plutarch Apuleius describes a shining black veil, which was carried in the procession of her statue.

 

--- Baal.  Heb. "to Baal the son;" (C.) or rather, "to Baal, to the son."  H.

 

--- The Heb. mazatoth, (C.) Sept. Mazouroth (H.) is not better understood.  S. Jerom translates signs of the zodiac; others have, influences, planets, Lucifer, Venus, &c.  Job (xxxviii. 32.) designates some stars by the name of Mozruth, and Mozrim.  C.



Baal

Baal (1Chron 4:33), probably identical with Baalath Beer Ramath (Josh 19:8; Simeon), poss. Biâr Mãyîn, or Tell el-Lekiyeh, N. of Bersabee. Baal, or Ballath. Jos. xix. 1.

6 And he caused the grove to be carried out from the house of the Lord without Jerusalem to the valley of Cedron, and he burnt it there, and reduced it to dust, and cast the dust upon the graves of the common people.

Ver. 6.  Grove.  The idol of Astarte, or the representation of a grove in sculpture.  H.

 

--- People, who were not rich enough to have a sepulchre.  Jeremias (xix. 11.) threatens the people of Jerusalem with such a burial.  C.

 

--- The common people here means the idolaters.  2 Par. xxxiv. 4.  H.



Brook of Cedron

[Hebrew Náhál Qidhrôn, "Wâdi Qidron"; only once "fields of Qidron"; John 18:1, ho cheimarros ho Kedron; in R.V., Kidron]. The name designates in Holy Writ the ravine on the east of Jerusalem, between the Holy City and the Mount of Olives. The word Cedron is usually connected with the root Qadár, "to be dark", and taken to refer to the colour of the stream or ravine; but its exact origin and precise meaning are really unknown. The Valley of Cedron begins with a slight depression near the Tombs of the Judges, a mile and a quarter north-west of Jerusalem. It runs first south towards the Holy city, and then turns nearly east, passing to the north of the tombs of the Kings. Next, it bends to the right towards the south, deepening as it follows this general direction between Jerusalem and the Mount of Olives. Opposite St. Stephen's gate, it is fully 100 feet deep and about 400 feet broad; its bed is shaded by venerable olive-trees and crossed by an old bridge. Below the bridge, the valley presents the first traces of a torrent bed. It narrows gradually and sinks more rapidly leaving to the east the church of the tomb of the Blessed Virgin, and next, Gethsemani. A thousand feet from the old bridge, the valley is merely a deep gulley across which another bridge is thrown, and on the banks of which are, to the right, Mohammedan tombs, and to the left, the sepulchres of Josaphat, Absalom, St. James, and the Jewish cemetery. About a thousand feet farther, there is in a cave, on the right bank, the Fountain of the Virgin, and higher up, on the left, the village of Siloe. Somewhat farther down, the Tyropoeon valley falls from the right into the Cedron, which now expands down to the Valley of Hinnom. Here, the Cedron is about 200 yards wide, and has on its left the Mount of Offence. Shortly after the junction of the Valley of Hinom with the Cedron, there is Job's well, to the south of which Sir C. Warren found, in 1868-69, the shaft of a great rock-cut aqueduct. On leaving the Holy City, the Valley of the Cedron runs its winding and gradually precipitous course through the Wilderness of Judea to the north-western shore of the Dead Sea. The Cedron is perfectly dry during the summer and most of the winter. North of Jerusalem, it bears the name of Wâdi al-Jos (Valley of Nuts); between the city and the Mount of Olives, it is known as Wâdi Sitti Mariam (Valley of St. Mary), or again as the Valley of Josaphat (cf. Joel, iii, 2, 12); after leaving Jerusalem, it is called Wâdi en-Nâr (Valley of Fire), and also Wâdi er-Rahib (Valley of the Monks). Its whole length is some 20 miles in a straight line, and its descent nearly 4000 feet. Its bed east of Jerusalem is now about 40 feet higher than in ancient times. The Cedron is first mentioned in Holy Scripture in connection with David's flight from Absalom, during which he crossed it [2 Samuel 15:23]; and next, in connection with the prohibition to Semei against his ever crossing it [1 Kings 2:37]. It was at the torrent Cedron that King Asa burnt the filthy idol of his mother [1 Kings 15:13; 2 Chronicles 15:16]. It was into it that Ezechias and Josias cast all the impurities which had polluted the House of the Lord (cf. 2 Chronicles 29:16; 30:14; 2 Kings 23:4, 6, 12). The torrent Cedron is last mentioned in the O.T. in Jeremiah 31:40, apparently as part of the common cemetery of Jerusalem. In the New Testament it is spoken of only once, in connection with Christ's going forth over it to Gethsemani (John 18:1). In the present day it is the desired resting-place of both Jews and Mussulmans, and the supposed scene of Last Judgment.

Cedron

Cedron. Heb. nachal Kidron, may signify, "the shady torrent," or "vale," as it is styled by Josephus. It does not take its name from cedars. It is dry in summer, and when filled with water, in only three steps across. Doubdan xxvii. --- Cedron, to the east and south of Jerusalem, where Topheth and the sepulchres of the poor, and all unclean things, were placed. Here the pagans burnt their children in honour of Moloch. See 3 K. xv. 13. 2 Par. xxix. 16. and xxx. 14.

7 He destroyed also the pavilions of the effeminate, which were in the house of the Lord, for which the women wove as it were little dwellings for the grove.

Ver. 7.  Effeminate.  Heb. "consecrated" (C.) or "initiated" (Mont.) in the obscene mysteries of idols.  See Deut. xxiii. 18. and 3 K. xv. 12. and 2 Mac. vi. 4.  These men prostituted themselves (M.) even in that sacred place.  C.

 

--- Prot. "he broke down the houses of the Sodomites, that were by the house of the Lord, where the women wove hangings for the grove."  These hangings, tents, or dwellings, (H.) were destined for the idol; (Syr. &c.) or they were intended to hid the abominations which were committed.  They were called "tents of the daughters," C. xvii. 30.  C.

 

--- For.  Lit. "of the grove:" luci.  But the other translation is conformable to the Sept.  Vatable, &c.  H.


8 And he gathered together all the priests out of the cities of Juda: and he defiled the high places, where the priests offered sacrifice, from Gabaa to Bersabee: and he broke down the altars of the gates that were in the entering in of the gate of Josue governor of tile city, which was on the left hand of the gate of the city.

Ver. 8.  Bersabee; to which the Israelites went in pilgrimages, Amos v. 5.  This place was situated at the southern extremity of the dominions of Juda, as Gabaa was at the northern.  The priests being unable to offer sacrifice in the temple, and desirous to gain a livelihood, had been so weak as to conform to the illegal practices of the country; though they seem to have intended to worship God.  Deut. xii. 11.

 

--- Altars.  These might also be consecrated to the true God, but they were forbidden.  There were others, placed in similar situations, in honour of Trivia, or the moon.  Isai.  lvii. 8. and lxv. 11.  C.

 

--- City, to a person entering.  Chal.  Josue was the chief lay-judge, or magistrate.  M.




9 However the priests of the high places came not up to the altar of the Lord in Jerusalem: but only ate of the unleavened bread among their brethren.

Ver. 9.  Brethren.  Thus people are degraded in the Christian Church, that they may suffer some confusion (C.) in this world, and repent.  H.

 

--- The priests, who had offered sacrifice unlawfully, where only permitted to perform the minor offices; but provision was made for their support, that they might not be tempted to relapse.  Lev. xxi. 17. 22.  Ezec. xliv. 10.  C.

 

--- They were reduced to the rank of Levites.  M.




10 And he defiled Topheth, which is in the valley of the son of Ennom: that no man should consecrate there his son or his daughter through fire to Moloch.

Ver. 10.  Defiled, or declared it unlawful.  M.

 

--- Topheth may signify "a drum;" which the Jews say the idolaters beat, to prevent their childrens' cries from being heard, when they were burning in the arms of Moloch.  S. Jerom interprets it "latitude," as the vale was very wide, and beautifully adorned with gardens and springs.  It formed a part of the vale of Josaphat and of Cedron; (C.) or the same valley went by these different names, as well as (H.) by that of Geh-hinnon, "the vale of Ennom," whence Gehenna is formed, and applied to hell.  Matt. v. 22.  Mark ix. 44. &c.  C.

 

--- Yet some think that the term denotes a place of torment on earth, which those deserve who say, thou fool.  H.




11 And he took away the horses which the kings of Juda had given to the sun, at the entering in of the temple of the Lord, near the chamber of Nathanmelech the eunuch, who was in Pharurim: and he burnt the chariots of the sun with fire.

Ver. 11.  Nathan-melech.  Sept. "to the treasury (room.  Pagnin) of Nathan, the king's eunuch," or chamberlain.  H.

 

--- Pharurim, "the suburbs."  Vatable.  M.  Chal.

 

--- It perhaps denotes the guard-house.  See 1 Par. xxvi. 18.

 

--- Chariots.  The aforesaid horses were designed to draw them in honour of the sun.  Some nations used to ride in this manner with all expedition, at its rising; and the Rabbins pretend that the king, or some other by his order, had been accustomed to ride from the eastern gate of the temple to the house of the governor, Nathan-melech.  The horse was consecrated to the sun, on account of its agility.

                        Placat equo Persis radiis Hyperiona cinctum,

                        Ne detur celeri victima tarda Deo.  Ovid, Fast. i.

The Persians sacrificed the horse to the sun, that a slow victim may not be offered to the swift deity.  The sun gives vigour to the whole material system, as the instrumental cause in the hand of God; and horses perceive the influence, more particularly in the warmer climates, and exult in their strength.  Job xxxix. 21.  H.

 

--- Perhaps these horses had been destined for sacrifice by the infidel kings of Juda, as well as the chariots.  C.

 

--- The Rhodeans threw some into the sea every year.  Festus.

 

--- Others think that what Josias took away, was only engraved, or, that the horses had been set at liberty for superstitious observations, as was customary among the pagans.  Tacit. Mor. Germ.  Sueton. in Julio.




12 And the altars that were upon the top of the upper chamber of Achaz, which the kings of Juda had made, and the altars which Manasses had made in the two courts of the temple of the Lord, the king broke down: and he ran from thence, and cast the ashes of them into the torrent Cedron.

Ver. 12.  Upper chamber, to be nearer the host of heaven, which they adored.  H.

 

--- We are assured that the Arabs also adored the sun, and offered incense to it on the tops of their houses.  The prophets often upbraid the people with this practice.  Jer. xix. 13. Soph. i. 5.  C.

 

--- It is wonderful that Ezechias had not before removed these remnants of his father's infidelity; and still more that Manasses, after his repentance, had not destroyed what he had unlawfully erected in the courts of the priests and of the people.  But Amon might have restored them.

 

--- Ran.  This shews the zeal of the king.  Heb. and Sept. "and thence he broke or tore them."



Cedron

Cedron. Heb. nachal Kidron, may signify, "the shady torrent," or "vale," as it is styled by Josephus. It does not take its name from cedars. It is dry in summer, and when filled with water, in only three steps across. Doubdan xxvii. --- Cedron, to the east and south of Jerusalem, where Topheth and the sepulchres of the poor, and all unclean things, were placed. Here the pagans burnt their children in honour of Moloch. See 3 K. xv. 13. 2 Par. xxix. 16. and xxx. 14.

Brook of Cedron

[Hebrew Náhál Qidhrôn, "Wâdi Qidron"; only once "fields of Qidron"; John 18:1, ho cheimarros ho Kedron; in R.V., Kidron]. The name designates in Holy Writ the ravine on the east of Jerusalem, between the Holy City and the Mount of Olives. The word Cedron is usually connected with the root Qadár, "to be dark", and taken to refer to the colour of the stream or ravine; but its exact origin and precise meaning are really unknown. The Valley of Cedron begins with a slight depression near the Tombs of the Judges, a mile and a quarter north-west of Jerusalem. It runs first south towards the Holy city, and then turns nearly east, passing to the north of the tombs of the Kings. Next, it bends to the right towards the south, deepening as it follows this general direction between Jerusalem and the Mount of Olives. Opposite St. Stephen's gate, it is fully 100 feet deep and about 400 feet broad; its bed is shaded by venerable olive-trees and crossed by an old bridge. Below the bridge, the valley presents the first traces of a torrent bed. It narrows gradually and sinks more rapidly leaving to the east the church of the tomb of the Blessed Virgin, and next, Gethsemani. A thousand feet from the old bridge, the valley is merely a deep gulley across which another bridge is thrown, and on the banks of which are, to the right, Mohammedan tombs, and to the left, the sepulchres of Josaphat, Absalom, St. James, and the Jewish cemetery. About a thousand feet farther, there is in a cave, on the right bank, the Fountain of the Virgin, and higher up, on the left, the village of Siloe. Somewhat farther down, the Tyropoeon valley falls from the right into the Cedron, which now expands down to the Valley of Hinnom. Here, the Cedron is about 200 yards wide, and has on its left the Mount of Offence. Shortly after the junction of the Valley of Hinom with the Cedron, there is Job's well, to the south of which Sir C. Warren found, in 1868-69, the shaft of a great rock-cut aqueduct. On leaving the Holy City, the Valley of the Cedron runs its winding and gradually precipitous course through the Wilderness of Judea to the north-western shore of the Dead Sea. The Cedron is perfectly dry during the summer and most of the winter. North of Jerusalem, it bears the name of Wâdi al-Jos (Valley of Nuts); between the city and the Mount of Olives, it is known as Wâdi Sitti Mariam (Valley of St. Mary), or again as the Valley of Josaphat (cf. Joel, iii, 2, 12); after leaving Jerusalem, it is called Wâdi en-Nâr (Valley of Fire), and also Wâdi er-Rahib (Valley of the Monks). Its whole length is some 20 miles in a straight line, and its descent nearly 4000 feet. Its bed east of Jerusalem is now about 40 feet higher than in ancient times. The Cedron is first mentioned in Holy Scripture in connection with David's flight from Absalom, during which he crossed it [2 Samuel 15:23]; and next, in connection with the prohibition to Semei against his ever crossing it [1 Kings 2:37]. It was at the torrent Cedron that King Asa burnt the filthy idol of his mother [1 Kings 15:13; 2 Chronicles 15:16]. It was into it that Ezechias and Josias cast all the impurities which had polluted the House of the Lord (cf. 2 Chronicles 29:16; 30:14; 2 Kings 23:4, 6, 12). The torrent Cedron is last mentioned in the O.T. in Jeremiah 31:40, apparently as part of the common cemetery of Jerusalem. In the New Testament it is spoken of only once, in connection with Christ's going forth over it to Gethsemani (John 18:1). In the present day it is the desired resting-place of both Jews and Mussulmans, and the supposed scene of Last Judgment.

13 The high places also that were at Jerusalem on the right side of the Mount of Offence, which Solomon king of Israel had built to Astaroth the idol of the Sidonians, and to Chamos the scandal of Moab, and to Melchom the abomination of the children of Ammon, the king defiled.

Ver. 13.  Offence; Olivet.  H.

 

--- In the original, the terms are very much alike; and the Jews take a pleasure in deforming names, for which they had a horror.  Solomon had erected temples here to various idols, (3 K. xi. 7.) which had probably been demolished by Ezechias, but had been rebuilt under Amon, &c. and subsisted during the minority of Josias; (C.) or they had been neglected by the pious kings of Juda, as no longer dangerous.  But Josias, in the fervour of his zeal, thought proper to remove every thing that had been the occasion of offence: Heb. "of corruption."

 

--- Idol, and scandal, and abomination, are the same in Heb.



Loading...



Astaroth

Astaroth (Deut 1:4, etc.), capital of Og, king of Basan: Tell Astâra, in Hauran.

14 And he broke in pieces the statues, and cut down the groves: and he filled their places with the bones of dead men.

Ver. 14.  Statues is more proper than the Prot. "images," which would rather be torn.

 

--- Dead is not expressed in the Heb. or Sept. but must be understood.  H.

 

--- The pagans had the same idea of their impurity: incestat funere classem.  Virgil, Æneid vi.


15 Moreover the altar also that was at Bethel, and the high place, which Jeroboam the son of Nabat, who made Israel to sin, had made: both the altar, and the high place he broke down and burnt, and reduced to powder, and burnt the grove.

Ver. 15.  Bethel had perhaps fallen into the hands of Juda, after the Israelites had been led away.  C.

 

--- Josias exercised the like authority throughout all Samaria, (v. 19.) as the country properly belonged to the house of David, and was God's peculiar inheritance.  H.

 

--- We may, therefore conclude that He authorized Josias to act in this manner; and the new inhabitants had no interest in maintaining the superstition of those who had lived there before them.  The priest sent by Asarhaddon, had taken up his residence at Bethel; whence it is inferred that the town, at that time, was in the hands of the Samaritans, (C.) as it might be still, though Josias might exercise dominion in it as lord paramount.  H.



Loading...



Bethel

Bethel, 1 see s.v. — 2 (Josh 12:16; Simeon) another name for Bethul. --- Bethel, as it was called in the days of Moses, being the ancient Luza. C. --- Bethel signifies the house of God, being honoured with two altars. H.

16 And as Josias turned himself, he saw there the sepulchres that were in the mount: and he sent and took the bones out of the sepulchres, and burnt them upon the altar, and defiled it according to the word of the Lord, which the man of God spoke, who had foretold these things.

Ver. 16.  Spoke.  Sept. subjoin some words, which seem to be lost in the original: ["when Jeroboam was standing, on the festival day, upon the altar.  And turning, he lifted up his eyes towards the tomb of the man of God,] who spoke these words."  H.

 

--- "The copies, from which this version was made, read differently from the modern copies," and often better.  Kennicott, diss. ii. p. 335.



Loading...


17 And he said: What is that monument which I see? And the men of that city answered: It is the sepulchre of the man of God, who came from Juda, and foretold these things which thou hast done upon the altar of Bethel.

Ver. 17.  Monument.  Heb. tsiun, "an eminence" of "dry" earth, (Ezec. xxxix. 15.) heaped upon a corpse; whence the Latin tumulus.  Servius.  C.

 

--- It seems some inscription was still to be seen on the tomb.  M.

 

--- Thou, &c.  Sept. "which he proclaimed against the altar."  H.



Loading...



Bethel

Bethel, 1 see s.v. — 2 (Josh 12:16; Simeon) another name for Bethul. --- Bethel, as it was called in the days of Moses, being the ancient Luza. C. --- Bethel signifies the house of God, being honoured with two altars. H.

18 And he said: Let him alone, let no man move his bones. So his bones were left untouched with the bones of the prophet that came out of Samaria.

Ver. 18.  Samaria.  It seems this word has been inserted instead of Juda, as it is certain the prophet came thence, v. 17. and 3 K. xiii. 32.  C.

 

--- But thus both prophets would be identified.  It would rather appear that the seducing prophet, who resided at Bethel, is here said to have come out of Samaria, though that place was not raised to the dignity of a royal city (H.) till 50 years afterwards.  C.

 

--- There might be a town there long before; and, at any rate, he belonged to the kingdom to Jeroboam, or of Samaria.  H.

 

--- His faith in the prophet's prediction was, perhaps, thus rewarded, (M.) as his bones were left unmolested, on account of their being buried in the same sepulchre with the man of God.  H.




19 Moreover all the temples of the high places, which were in the cities of Samaria, which the kings of Israel had made to provoke the Lord, Josias took away: and he did to them according to all the acts that he had done in Bethel.

Bethel

Bethel, 1 see s.v. — 2 (Josh 12:16; Simeon) another name for Bethul. --- Bethel, as it was called in the days of Moses, being the ancient Luza. C. --- Bethel signifies the house of God, being honoured with two altars. H.

20 And he slew all the priests of the high places, that were there, upon the altars: and he burnt men's bones upon them: and returned to Jerusalem.

Ver. 20.  Slew.  Most of the Israelites who had been left, (H.) embraced the true religion, after the captivity of their brethren, (C.) and adhered to the kings of Juda, (v. 15.  H.) who had taken possession of the whole country (D.) after the fall of the Assyrian empire; (T.) unless the emperors of Chaldea had given it to them as to their vassels.  See v. 29.  C.




21 And he commanded all the people, saying: Keep the phase to the Lord your God, according as it is written in the book of this covenant.

Ver. 21.  Covenant, in Deuteronomy, C. xxii. 8.  M.



Loading...


22 Now there was no such a phase kept from the days of the judges, who judged Israel, nor in all the days of the kings of Israel, and of the kings of Juda,

Ver. 22.  No such, is all respects.  H.

 

--- The number of paschal lambs was certainly greater when all Israel was assembled; but the other victims presented by the king and his officers during the octave is here noticed, (2 Par. xxxv. 7.  M.) as they are also styled the Phase; (H.) and this explains Jo. xviii. 28.  T.

 

--- Neither ought we to push these expressions too far, as they only mean, that this solemnity was very great.  See v. 25.  C. xviii. 5.  C.




23 As was this phase that was kept to the Lord in Jerusalem, in the eighteenth year of king Josias.


24 Moreover the diviners by spirits, and soothsayers, and the figures of idols, and the uncleannesses, and the abominations, that had been in the land of Juda, and Jerusalem, Josias took away: that he might perform the words of the law, that were written in the book which Helcias the priest had found in the temple of the Lord.

Ver. 24.  Spirits.  Lit. "the pythons."  Deut. xviii. 11; Num. xxii. 5.

 

--- Idols.  Heb. Teraphim; Prot. "images," Gen. xxi. 19.

 

--- Uncleannesses.  Heb. &c. "idols."




25 There was no king before him like unto him, that returned to the Lord with all his heart, and with all his soul, and with all his strength, according to all the law of Moses: neither after him did there arise any like him.

Ver. 25.  Like him.  Every person has some peculiarity, which distinguishes him from every other.  H.

 

--- Thus we say of many saints: There was none found like unto him.  Eccli. xliv. 20.  T.


26 But yet the Lord turned not away from the wrath of his great indignation, wherewith his anger was kindled against Juda: because of the provocations, wherewith Manasses had provoked him.

Ver. 26.  Had provoked him.  The impiety of this king must have been extreme, since his repentance did not avert the scourge.  H.

 

--- Besides, many of the people were corrupt at heart, though they were afraid of shewing it, as we learn from the prophets Jeremias and Sophonias.  God therefore withdrew the good Josias, who was their bulwark, that they might feel the effects of his just indignation.  C.




27 And the Lord said: I will remove Juda also from before my face, as I have removed Israel: and I will cast off this city Jerusalem, which I chose, and the house, of which I said: My name shall be there.

Loading...




28 Now the rest of the acts of Josias, and all that he did, are they not written in the book of the words of the days of the kings of Juda?


29 In his days Pharao Nechao king of Egypt went up against the king of Assyria to the river Euphrates: and king Josias went to meet him: and was slain at Mageddo, when he had seen him.

Ver. 29.  Nechao, six years (Usher, A. 3394.) after he had succeeded his father Psammetichus, with whose ambitious views hew as animated to attempt the conquest of Asia.  Marsham sæc. 18.  Pharao pretends that God had sent him to attack the Assyrians.  2 Par. xxxv. 21.  But Josias thought he was only imposing on him, or speaking through fear.  The Jews assert that Jeremias also opposed the king's design.  3 Esd. i. 28.  S. Jer. ad Ctesip.  But this does not appear from the canonical Scripture.  C.

 

--- Meet him, in order to hinder him from passing through his dominions without leave; as this might prove dangerous.  H.

 

--- Seen him, and fought.  M.

 

--- He received a mortal wound at Mageddo, but did at Jerusalem.  2 Par. xxxv. 23.  Joseph. x. 6.

 

--- Mageddo lay to the south of Cison, where Barak had fought before.  Judg. v. 19.  Herodotus (ii. 159.) says, that Nechos gained a victory over the Syrians at Magdolum, and took Cadytis, which is probably Cades, a strong city of Galilee, though some take it to be Jerusalem, as it may be interpreted "the holy city."  C.

 

--- Mageddo is called Magdala in the Greek, and Magedan in other copies, and in the Vulg.  Mat. xv. 39.



Loading...



Assyria

Assyria. The successors of Cyrus now ruled over those countries, (C.) which had belonged to the most potent Assyrian and Chaldean monarchs; and therefore the titles are given to them indiscriminately. T.

30 And his servants carried him dead from Mageddo: and they brought him to Jerusalem, and buried him in his own sepulchre. And the people of the land took Joachaz the son of Josias: and they anointed him, and made him king in his father's stead.

Ver. 30.  Sepulchre.  Par. xxxv. in the monument (or mausoleum) of his fathers.  Such was the end of Josias: he fell gloriously in defence of his country, as he had spent his life in promoting religion.  God therefore withdrew him from the sight of the miseries which were shortly to fall on his devoted people.  C. xxii. 20.  H.

 

--- He was a prince of most excellent disposition, and receives the highest encomium,  v. 25. and Eccli. xlix. 1.  Jeremias composed his funeral canticle, which was sung on  his anniversary for many years.  2 Par. xxxv. 24.  The mourning for this pious king became proverbial, and resembled that which should be made for the Messias.  Zac. xii. 11.  The life and death of Josias prefigured those of Jesus Christ; who should be long expected as the restorer of the true religion, the teacher of a more excellent law, and the most innocent victim for the sins of the people.  The glorious Phase under Josias, was but a faint representation of the eucharistic sacrifice.  C.




31 Joachaz was three and twenty years old when he began to reign, and he reigned three months in Jerusalem: the name of his mother was Amital, the daughter of Jeremias of Lobna.

Ver. 31.  Old.  Eliacim his brother was 25.  H.

 

--- Perhaps Joachaz was esteemed more by the people, as fitter to defend them against the king of Egypt, who had proceeded on his journey to attack Charchamis on the Euphrates.  C.

 

--- Having placed a garrison in it, he was met by Joachaz, and gained a victory over him at Rebla, (H.) as Sanctius gathers from Ezec. xix. 4.  Hence he treated the captive king with such severity, and sent him into Egypt to die in chains.  Jer. xxii. 11.  Joachaz is called Sellum (in Jer.) and Jechonias, 3 Esd. i. 34.  C.

 

--- He was a lion only against his own subjects.  T.



Loading...




32 And he did evil before the Lord, according to all that his fathers had done. 33 And Pharao Nechao bound him at Rebla, which is in the land of Emath, that he should not reign in Jerusalem: and he set a fine upon the land, of a hundred talents of silver, and a talent of gold.

Ver. 33.  Rebla.  Syr. and Arab. "Deblat;" probably (C.) Apamea on the Orontes.  Chal. on Num. xxxiv. 11.




34 And Pharao Nechao made Eliacim the son of Josias king in the room of Josias his father: and turned his name to Joakim. And he took Joachaz away and carried him into Egypt, and he died there.

Ver. 34.  Joakim.  Thus he asserted his dominion over him, as Nabuchodonosor did afterwards over Matthanias.  C. xxiv. 17.  Daniel i. 6.  C.

 

--- Eliacim means nearly the same as Joakim, "the Lord's strength," or "appointment."  M.




35 And Joakim gave the silver and the gold to Pharao, after he had taxed the land for every man, to contribute according to the commandment of Pharao: and he exacted both the silver and the gold of the people of the land, of every man according to his ability: to give to Pharao Nechao. 36 Joakim was five and twenty years old when he began to reign: and he reigned eleven years in Jerusalem: the name of his mother was Zebida the daughter of Phadaia of Ruma.

Ver. 36.  Old, of course Josias had him at 15.  Some suspect we ought to read 15 here.  D.



Loading...




37 And he did evil before the Lord according to all that his fathers had done.

Ver. 37.  Fathers, or ancestors, not his immediate father Josias, v. 32.  H.

 

--- Joakim chose to imitate the wicked, and was not deterred by the chastisement of his brother.  C.

 

--- His character was marked with avarice and cruelty.  He slew the prophet Urias.  Jer. xxii. 13. and xxvi 23.  H.

 

--- S. Matthew i. 11. calls him Jechonias.  (M.)  1 Par. iii. 15.


Mt Mk Lk Jn Acts Rom 1 Cor 2 Cor Gal Eph Phil Col 1 Thess 2 Thess 1 Tim 2 Tim Tit Philem Heb Jas 1 Pet 2 Pet 1 Jn 2 Jn 3 Jn Jude Rev

 

Father
Son
Holy Spirit
Angels
Satan
Commentary
Reference
Artwork
Atlas