Ver. 1. Twentieth. Houbigant endeavours to shew it should be, "the 14th;" Capellus says, the 17th; (H.) and others have suspected that the number is incorrectly printed. Grot. &c.
--- But this expedient ought only to be adopted when no other can give satisfaction; and this difficulty may be obviated by saying, that Jeroboam's reign with his father continued six years, and that after he had held the septre nineteen years alone, Azarias commenced; (C. Usher) or, that there was an interregnum of eleven years, which is not probable. Capel.
--- Azarias; otherwise called Ozias; (Ch.) and this was his real name. Grot. See C. xiv. 21. H.
Ver. 3. Lord. Many laudable actions are specified, 2 Par. xxvi. 4. But at last, forgetting the instructions of the prophet Zacharias, he opened his heart to pride, the bane of great souls, and would arrogate to himself the rights of the priesthood, which brought on his leprosy. C.
Ver. 4. But. In this he was not different from his father. C. xiv. 4.
Ver. 5. A leper. In punishment of his usurping the priestly functions. 2 Par. xxvi. 19. Ch. W.
--- The priests boldly remonstrated with him, but to no effect; till the king perceived himself stricken with the leprosy. Josephus (ix. 10.) says, a dreadful earthquake was felt at the same time, which is supposed to be that mentioned Amos i. 1. and Zac. xiv. 5; (S. Jerom, &c.) though Usher produces some chronological difficulties against this opinion: but they are founded on error. C.
--- Free. Par. apart; at a distance from all. H.
--- The like rules were observed in cities, as in the camp. Lev. xiii. 46. M.
--- Ozias was in a manner dead to all civil transactions; and Isaias (vi. 1.) probably refers to this event. Syr. and Arab. "he remained hidden." Josephus (ibid.) says, "leading a private life." Thus aiming at too much, he lost all! H.
Ver. 7. David: or, Oziaas slept...and they buried him in the field of the royal sepulchre, because he was a leper, and Joatham, &c. 2 Par. xxvi. 23. H.
--- Such an aversion had people for lepers, that they would not even bury them with others. C.
--- Yet he was treated with some honour. W.
Ver. 8. Thirtieth. Usher would place an interregnum of eleven years and a half, after the death of Jeroboam, to make the first year of Zacharias correspond with the 38th of Azarias, during which, he supposes, the troubles mentioned Amos vii. and viii. happened. But this interregnum has no foundation, v. 5. C.
--- Capellus says it would have lasted above 22 years. He and Houbigant would read, 28th: the latter adds ten years to the reign of Zacharias. The transcriber might easily omit the years, as they end in the same manner as months. Arab. has "six years;" whence we may infer, that the copies formerly varied. The exploits of Zacharias require a longer space than six months. Chron. sac. p. 107. 110.
Ver. 10. Place, having before taken his measures with the conspirators; (v. 15.) so that he had not to fear the resentment of the people. He cut off the last king of the family of Jehu; (H.) probably at Jezrahel. Osee i. 5. C.
Ver. 14. Manahem, general of Zacharias, revenged his death, and then returning to Tharsa, treated it and the neighbouring city, Thapsa, with the utmost fury. So Josephus, ix. 11. But his conjectures are to be received with caution.
Ver. 17. Ten years. Dating from the time that he was enabled to enjoy the throne in peace, after a struggle of eleven months. Usher, A. 3233.
--- Phul rendered him this service, having received presents, and one of the golden calves, (Osee x. 6. and xiii.) besides 1000 talents, v. 19.
Ver. 18. Days. During which Jeroboam or Manahem swayed the sceptre. C.
--- The Sept. refer all his days to the following verse, (H.) which seems to intimate that the tribute was required annually, as may be gathered from the Vulg. veniebat. M.
--- But Phul probably received the talents only once, to indemnify him for his trouble. He was perhaps the father of Sardanapalus, who joined his name, Phul, to his own, Sardan; as Merodach assumed that of Baladan. Isai. xxxix. 1. Profane authors style the father of Sardanapalus, Anacindaraxes, &c. Phul was the first of the Assyrian monarchs who came into the land of Israel, where we shall find them too often in the sequel. He probably repented on the preaching of Jonas, and averted the scourge (C.) which fell upon the city during the reign of his son. H.
Ver. 20. Rich. The lower classes were not perhaps entirely exempted.
Ver. 25. Near. Heb. "may be along with Argob, &c." who were in the conspiracy. Chal. Sept. &c. C.
ArgobArgob may signify rich and fertile; "all that fertile region, the kingdom of Og." Vatable thinks that Basan, Argob, and Trachonitis, denote the same country. But Cellarius observes, that the last mentioned country was ill cultivated and very poor, the inhabitants living mostly in the caverns of rocks, whereas Argob or Basan was adorned with 60 cities.
Ver. 26. Israel. This book is lost. H.
--- The Paral. takes no notice of these kings; but relates only the transactions of the kings of Juda after Joas gained the victory; which greatly abridged their power. C. xiv. 14.
Ver. 27. Romelia. S. Jerom (ep. 142.) places the birth of Romulus in this year, which preceded the famous Olympiads. But Salien differs that event 14 years. A.C. 769. H.
Ver. 29. Assyria, at the invitation of Achaz. C. xvi. 7.
--- Theglathphalasar is probably the same who is called Ninus the younger, or Thilgam, (Ælian. animal. xii. 21.) by profane writers. He re-established the kingdom of Nineve in part, after the city had been taken, under his father Sardanapalus, by Arbaces, founder of the empire of the Medes, and by Belesus, narbonassar, or Baladan, who reigned at Babylon. Such was the state of the eastern empires at this time. C.
--- Aion, or Ahion, (3 K. xv. 20.) perhaps the Enan of Ezechiel xlviii. 1. H.
--- Moacha, whither Seba had retreatd, 2 K. xx. 14. Heb. Abel-beth-maacha.
--- Galaad, comprising all the east of the Jordan. C.
--- Nephthali, to the north-west. H.
--- Thus the Galileans and Nephthali were transported into Assyria, to repeople it after the late ravages. The tribe in Galaad were fixed on the river Gozan, 1 Par. v. 26.
AbelAbel was noted for its vineyards, 12 miles east of Gadara, so that Jephte pursued the enemy, as they fled towards the north for about 60 miles, and during the course of the war destroyed 20 of their cities, (C.) to punish them for their unjust revenges and usurpation of another's property. H. (the great: 1Sam 6:18) is a common name, "stone", as the D.V. suggests in the parenthesis. — Abel (Judg 11:33; Hebrew 'Abél Kerãmîm), — Abela (2Ki 20:14) — Abeldomum Maacha (1Ki 15:20; 2Ki 15:29); — Abelmaim (2Chron 16:4); — Abelmehula (Judg 7:23, etc.); Abelsatim (Num 33:49), the place where the Israelites were enticed into the impure worship of Beelphegor; in the Ghôr E. of the Jordan, at a short distance from the Dead Sea. ---Abel. A stone or rock, on which the Jews say Abraham had offered sacrifice; (S. Jer. Trad. T.) Heb. "or mourning," was so called afterwards, on account of so many being slain; (M.) so the place, to which the Egyptians accompanied the remains of Jacob, was styled "Abol," the mourning of Egypt. Gen. l. 11. H. --- The Sept. read Abon, "the stone." All the towns belonging to the Philistines, as far as this place, sent each their golden images, or contributed towards those which were presented by the five lords.
AsorAsor 1- (Josh 11:1, etc.; Nephtali), also Hasor, Heser. Egyptian: Huzar: the site seems to have been in the neighbourhood of L. Hûleh, but its exact location is the object of great discussions. 2- (Josh 15:23; S. Juda). perhaps connected with Jebel Hâdhîreh, N.E. of Cades. 3- (Josh 15:25; S. Juda). 4- (Neh 11:33, Benjamin), poss. Kh. Hazzûr, N. of Jerusalem. --- Asor, the capital of Jabin. C. xi. 1. --- Asor, near lake Semechon. Jos. xi. 1. Gr. "Nasor," erroneously. C.
AssyriaAssyria. The successors of Cyrus now ruled over those countries, (C.) which had belonged to the most potent Assyrian and Chaldean monarchs; and therefore the titles are given to them indiscriminately. T.
Ver. 30. In the twentieth year of Joatham. That is, in the twentieth year from the beginning of Joatham's reign. The sacred writer chooses rather to follow here this date, tan to speak of the years of Achaz, who had not yet been mentioned. Ch.
--- But Joatham reigned only 16 years, (v. 33) so that this was the fourth year of Achaz. H.
--- Usher says that Osee did not ascend the throne till nine years after the death of Phacee, as he is asserted to have commenced his reign in the twelfth year of Achaz. C. xvii. 1. But another difficulty arises from the mention of this 20th year, as Phacee would have reigned 22, instead of 20; (v. 27.) for Joatham only commenced in the second year of Phacee. To reconcile these passages, we may conclude that Osee conspired against the king of Israel in the 18th year of Joatham, gained possession of part of the kingdom in the 20th of the same prince, and of the whole in the 12th of Achaz. C.
--- The pretended interregnum ought to be rejected, as the murderer of the late king would not delay to ascend the throne. Houbigant adds 10 years to the reign of Phacee, as well as to that of Zacharias: the dates assigned to the kings of Israel being otherwise so much deficient, p. 113.
Ver. 34. Did he. Yet he did not imitate his presumption. God gave great success to his enterprises, 2 Paral. xxvii. 2.
Ver. 35. Gate, repairing that on the east. Jeremias (xxvi. 10.) mentions the new gate. Joatham also made great additions to the walls of Jerusalem. Paral.
Ver. 37. Began. Achaz was much more infested by these princes.