Ver. 1. Edom. Edom and Bosra (a strong city of Edom) are here taken in a mystical sense for the enemies of Christ and his Church. Ch.
--- S. Jerom with reason finds it difficult to explain it of Christ, as it regards the Machabees. Houbigant.
--- The first six verses are applied to our Saviour's ascension, which excites the admiration of angels. Ps. xxiii. 7. Judas, the Machabee, the glorious figure of Christ, is introduced speaking in this and the following chapter. He conquered Idumea, (1 Mac. v. 3. and 2 Mac. x. 10.) and fought to save the people. 1 Mac. ix. 21. C.
--- The highest order of angels asks this question, admiring the beauty of Christ, though imbrued in blood after his victory. S. Dionys. Hierar. vii. W.
BosraBosra, 1 (Isa 63:1; Edom): Buseireh, S. of the Dead Sea. — 2 (Josh 21:27), mistranslation for Astaroth. — 3 (Jer 48:24): Bosor, 1. --- Bosra, or Bezer, was the capital of Idumea, in the tribe of Ruben. C.
Ver. 3. Press. Christ suffered, (S. Cyr.) and punished his enemies, Apocalypse xiv. 19. Judas received God's sword from Jeremias, (2 Mac. xv. 15.) and liberated his people.
Ver. 5. Me. I depended on the goodness of my cause, and on God's aid. C. lix. 15. C.
Ver. 6. Drunk with the wine of my fury. Ps. lxxiv. 9. Ezec. xxiii. 31. H.
Ver. 7. I, Isaias; or rather the hero mentions what induced him to rise up. 1 Mac. xvi. 10. C.
--- The Jews confess God's mercies. S. Jer.
Ver. 8. Deny, or prove degenerate. C.
--- God approves the conduct of the Machabees. H.
Ver. 9. Presence, in high authority. Ex. xxxiii. 20. C.
--- The angel guardian of the Church. Particular guardians also see God's face. Mat. xviii. W.
Ver. 10. One; Moses. Num. xiv. 29. and xx. 3, 12.
Ver. 11. Flock. Ps. lxxvi. 21.
--- One. Moses inspired by God. C.
Ver. 13. Not, the road was so plain. Wisd. xix. 7. H.
Ver. 15. Back. This is spoken by the prophet in the person of the Jews, at the time when for their sins they were given up to their enemies. Ch.
--- Judas uses the same language at Maspha. 1 Mac. iii. 50. C.
Ver. 16. Abraham, &c. That is, Abraham will not now acknowledge us for his children, by reason of our degeneracy; but thou, O Lord, art our true father and our redeemer, and no other can be called our parent in comparison with thee. Ch.
--- Abraham is not able to save us. C.
--- The patriarchs may justly disregard us, as degenerate children; yet we hope in God's mercies. Thus S. Jerom, &c. explain the passage, which does not favour the errors of Vigilantius and of Luther, who maintain that the saints departed do not know what passes in this world. S. Aug. (Cura xv.) shews the contrary, from the example of Lazarus, Luke xvi. They know each other, though they had not lived together, (S. Greg. Dial. iv. 33.) and beheld in the light of God what regards their clients. S. Aug. de Civ. Dei. xxii. 29. We cannot decide how the martyrs do help those whom it is certain they assist. S. Aug. cura xvi. c. Faust. xx. 21. S. Jer. c. Vigil. S. Greg. 3 ep. 30. and 7 ep. 126. &c. W.
Ver. 17. Hardened, &c. The meaning is, that God, in punishment of their great and manifold crimes, and their long abuse of his mercy and grace, had withdrawn his graces from them, and so given them up to error and hardness of heart. Ch.
--- They had abused his patience, to sin the more. Theodoret
--- The Jews are accustomed to attribute all to God, though they agree with us in reality God might prevent any sin. C.
--- But he chooses to leave man to the free exercise of his liberty. He hardens (H.) "not by infusing malice, but by not shewing mercy; and those to whom he shews it not, are undeserving." S. Aug. ep. ad Sixt. cxciv. 14.
--- God is never the author of error. Man takes occasion from his indulgence to become obdurate. S. Jer. W.
Ver. 18. Nothing; holding them in the greatest contempt. Epiphanes though he should make them easily change their religion. His persecution lasted only three years and a half.
--- Sanctuary. 1 Mac. i. 23. 49. 57. and iii. 45.
Ver. 19. Name. We seem to have no distinction, temple, &c. C.
--- Prot. "We are thine. Thou never bearest rule over them. They were," &c. H.