Ver. 1. And. Notwithstanding the sins of his people, God will deliver them, that they may be his witnesses. v. 10. C.
--- Name. As an intimate friend, (H.) or slave. C. xlix. 1. C.
--- God grants grace without any preceding merit. W.
--- Forerius explains this mostly of the Gentile church, though it regards the converted Jews. Houbig.
Ver. 2. Waters. In every emergency, God will protect thee, (C.) as he did the three children. H.
--- He will suffer none to perish, without their own fault. Hence the Church still continues pure. W.
Ver. 3. Ethiopia. Heb. "Chus," the isle of Meroe, (Grot.) or the country bordering on the Red Sea. C. xlv. 14. These were given to indemnify Cyrus. They obtained their liberty to return home, after 40 years. Ezec. xxix. 11.
SabaSaba is written with sh, to denote a part of Arabia, and with s, when Ethiopia is meant. Ps. lxxi. 10. The former is here designated, (M.) being "the ends of the earth, east" of Judea, (Tacit. Hist. v.) and lying also to the south of that country. Matt. xii. 42. This region was famous for gold, &c. and acknowledged the dominion of women: "Medis levibusque Sabæis Imperat hic sexus." Claud. Eutrop. i. Grotius follows the opinion of Josephus (viii. 6.) and Origen, (hom. 2. in Cant.) who place the seat of this queen's empire at Meroe. The Abyssinians also pretend that their kings are descendants of Solomon, by the queen of Saba; and that Azarias, the son of Sadoc, stole the tables of the law, when he brought back his pupil from Jerusalem. Sanctius.
Ver. 4. Eyes, by a gratuitous choice.
--- Men. Chaldees, &c.
Ver. 5. East. Babylon.
--- West. The island beyond the Mediterranean.
Ver. 6. North. Assyria.
--- South. Egypt. The captives returned from these countries under Cyrus, Alex. &c. so that before the coming of Christ, Judea was as well peopled as ever. C.
Ver. 7. Calleth. Heb. "is called by my name." Prot. H.
--- My people's chastisements and liberation prove my divine perfections.
Ver. 8. Ears. Yet will not hear, (C.) or who are miraculously healed. H.
--- It seems rather to mean idolatrous nations, (v. 9. C.) or rebellious Jews. Forer. Houbigant.
Ver. 9. Former. The pagans were little acquainted with antiquity. Such researches lead to the knowledge of the true religion. H.
--- Truth, if they can produce any true prophecy.
Ver. 10. Witnesses. The history of the Israelites was sufficient to shew who was God. C.
--- Thus the establishment of Christianity manifests its truth. S. Aug. de Civ. Dei. xxii. 6.
--- Sept. add, "and I am witness." H.
Ver. 12. One idol, to announce what would happen.
Ver. 14. Bars. Sept. "fugitives." Theodot. "strong ones."
--- Glorying. Sept. "shall be bound in ships," to be sent beyond the Caspian Sea. C.
--- Cyrus was victorious for the sake of God's people; for he will not neglect his Church. W.
Ver. 16. Waters. of the Jordan and the Red Sea, in the latter of which Pharao perished. v. 17.
Ver. 19. New. I shall work the like miracles as were seen in the wilderness.
Ver. 20. Chosen. We know not that rivers were found in Arabia. But the people were equally favoured. Christ facilitates the road to heaven by his example and graces, while the most savage tempers are changed in baptism.
Ver. 23. Incense. My kindness is gratuitous. In a strange land, thou couldst not offer sacrifice. See C. xlviii. 9. and xlix. 1. C.
Ver. 24. Iniquities. Thou hast shewn the greatest ingratitude. H.
--- Yet I will save thee.
Ver. 26. Thyself. God condescends to act thus with men. C. xli. 20. Osee iv. 1.
Ver. 27. First father. Adam, (Liran.) or rather Abraham sinned, by diffidence, (Gen. xv. 8. S. Jer.) or was formerly an idolater. Jos. xxiv. 2. Geneb. A. 2049 S. Aug. de Civ. Dei. 12. C. T.
--- Teachers. Lit. "interpreters," (H.) Moses and Aaron. Num. xx. 9. C.
--- All the patriarchs and teachers sinned, till Christ, the immaculate lamb, appeared. Adam engaged all in guilt. W.
Ver. 28. Profaned, or declared such, (H.) Nadab, &c. (Lev. x. 1. C.) or Moses and Aaron. M.
--- Sept. "and the princes defiled my holy things." H.
--- Slaughter. Heb. "anathema." Yet I will re-establish all. C.