Ver. 1. Sackcloth. Emblems of repentance. Sennacherib's boasting (v. 13.) was chastised. v. 36. W.
Ver. 7. Spirit. Angel, or a different design. 2 Thes. ii. 8. C.
AvaAva (2Ki 17:24, etc.), also Avah, a Babylonian city conquered by the Assyrians. Possibly Hit, on the right bank of the Euphrates.
ArphadArphad (2Ki 18:34, etc.), Assyr.: Arpaddu: Tell 'Erfâd, 12 m. N. of Aleppo. --- Arphad, or Arad, an island and city on the continent, (C.) near Tyre.
AnaA town in Babylonia, on the Euphrates, possibly 'Anah. --- Ana is probably a city (D.) built on both sides of the Euphrates, four days' journey from Bagdat. Isaias does not specify these cities in the parallel passage, but they are found in the letter addressed to Ezechias, Isai. xxxvii. 13.
Ver. 18. Lands. Heb. "all the lands and their land." The parallel text is more correct, "the nations and their land." Kennicott.
Ver. 24. Carmel. See 4 K. xix. Ch.
CarmelCarmel. Not where Elias dwelt, but a city and mountain 10 miles east of Eleutheropolis. Nabal rendered it famous by his imprudence, (1 K. xxv.) and Saul by a triumphal arch, 1 K. xv. 12. --- Carmel, so famous for the miracles of Elias, 3 K. xviii. 20. Josephus (Bel. ii. 17,) places it 120 stadia south of Ptolemais. This range of mountains extended northward through the tribes of Issachar and of Zabulon. Pliny (v. 17,) speaks of a promontory and of a town of this name. Here also the god Carmel was adored, having an altar, but no temple or image, as the ancients had decreed. Nec simulacrum Deo aut templum, (sic tradidere majores) ara tantum et reverentia. Tacit. Hist. ii. 78. --- Vespasian consulted the priest Basilides. Carmel means "the vineyard of the Lord," or the excellent vineyard, &c. It was so rich and beautiful as to become proverbial. The spouse compares the head of his beloved to Carmel. C. vii. 5. Isaias (xxxii. 15,) foretels that the deserts shall be equal to Carmel. It was covered with wood and fruit. S. Jerom in Isai. x. 18. Jer. iv. 26. The city, which was built upon this mountain, and which Pliny calls by the same name, was formerly styled Ecbatana. The oracle had denounced to Cambyses that he should die at Ecbatana, and he concluded that the city of Media was meant; but it was "that of Syria," says Herodotus, (iii. 64,) where he died.
Ver. 25. Shut, &c. Heb. matsor, (H.) "of Egypt," where Sennacherib had been. C.
Ver. 29. Lips, and treat thee like some ungovernable beast. H. Ezec. xxix. 4. and xxxviii. 4. C.
Ver. 30. Thee. He directeth his speech to Ezechias.
Ver. 35. Servant. Hence it plainly appears that God protects the living for the sake of the saints departed. To evade this proof, Prot. (Bible 1603) explain, "for God's promise sake made to David." But God never made any such promise to him; otherwise the city would never have been destroyed. W.
Ver. 36. They. The people of Jerusalem, or rather the soldiers of Ezechias, who saw those who had been slain, near Pelusium. C.