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FOR behold the sovereign the Lord of hosts shall take away from Jerusalem, and from Juda the valiant and the strong, the whole strength of bread, and the whole strength of water.

Ver. 1.  Strong.  Heb. and Sept. imply, "woman."  H.


--- Validam.  S. Cyp. Test. i.


--- After the death of Christ, the Jews had none strong.  S. Jerom


--- Strength.  Heb. "staff," or support (Lev. xxvi. 26.) in the dreadful famine which fell on Jerusalem.  Lam. iv. 5. 10.  Who then shall rely on the power of any man?  C. ii. 22.  C.


--- The Jews were depressed at the sieges of their city, and will be so till the end of the world.  W.

2 The strong man, and the man of war, the judge, and the prophet, and the cunning man, and the ancient.

Ver. 2.  Prophet.  Ezechiel was taken away under Jechonias.  Other prophets were disregarded, and the cunning man, (ariolus, which may be understood in a good or bad sense.  C.) every false prophet was silent, when danger threatened.

3 The captain over fifty, and the honourable in countenance, and the counsellor, and the architect, and the skilful in eloquent speech.

Ver. 3.  Countenance.  Sept. "the admired counsellor," (H.) who came into the king's presence.


--- Architect.  4 K. xxiv. 14.  C.


--- Eloquent.  Lit. "mystic."  H.


--- Aquila and Sym. "enchanter."

4 And I will give children to be their princes, and the effeminate shall rule over them.

Ver. 4.  Effeminate.  Heb. "babes."  Sept. "scoffers."  Aquila, &c. "changers," (C.) who give way to unnatural excesses.  Rom. i. 27.  H.


--- Some manifest a prudence beyond their years: but the last kings of Juda did not.  2 Par. xxxvi. 1. Eccle. x. 16.


5 And the people shall rush one upon another, and every man against his neighbour: the child shall make it tumult against the ancient, and the base against the honourable.

Ver. 5.  People.  They were divided, whether they should continue to obey Nabuchodonosor, or listen to the Egyptians.  Ismael slew Godolias.  Jer. xli.

6 For a man shall take hold or his brother, one of the house of his father, saying: Thou hast a garment, be thou our ruler, and let this ruin be under thy hand.

Ver. 6.  Garment.  They were ready to follow any, who was not quite destitute, like themselves.  Jer. xxxix. 10.


--- Ruin.  Fallen people.

7 In that day he shall answer, saying: I am no healer, and in my house there is no bread, nor clothing: make me not ruler of the people.

Ver. 7.  Clothing.  The indigent were excluded from dignities, for fear lest they should seek to enrich themselves by unjustifiable means.  Ex. xviii. 22.  Plut. in Sol.  Pliny xvi. 19.  C.

8 For Jerusalem is ruined, and Juda is fallen: because their tongue, and their devices are against the Lord, to provoke the eyes of his majesty.

Ver. 8.  For.  The prophet tells what will happen.  M.


--- And their.  Sept. "are sinful, disbelieving what regards the Lord.  Wherefore now their glory is brought low."  H.


--- They must have followed a very different Hebrew copy from ours.  C.

9 The shew of their countenance hath answered them: and they have proclaimed abroad their sin as Sodom, and they have not hid it: woe to their souls, for evils are rendered to them.

Ver. 9.  Shew, (agnitio.)  "Knowledge."  W.


--- Impudence, &c.  C.


--- Hacurath (H.) occurs no where else.  C.


--- From their countenance we may judge that they are proud, &c.  M.

10 Say to the just man that it is well, for he shall eat the fruit of his doings.

Ver. 10.  Well.  Jeremias (xxxix. 11.) was treated by the enemy with great respect.  Sept. "having said, let us bind the just man, for he is troublesome, (H.) or displeasing (C.) to us.  Hence they," &c.  H.  Wisd. ii. 12.  Many of the Fathers quote it thus.  But our version agrees well with the original, as Isaias joins consoling predictions with those which are of a distressing nature.  C.


--- Yet the Sept. seem to have thrown light on the Heb. by supplying an omission from the book of Wisdom.  Houbig.


--- Thus all must be explained of the wicked, whose malice shall be punished.


--- He shall.  S. Jer. and all versions read, "they shall eat the fruit of their doings, or devices."  Fructum adinventionum suarum comedent.  H.


--- All who hear of this must applaud the just God for acting well in their punishment.  According to the Sept. Christ and his adversaries are clearly pointed out.  S. Jer.

11 Woe to the wicked unto evil: for the reward of his hands shall be given him. 12 As for my people, their oppressors have stripped them, and women have ruled over them. O my people, they that call thee blessed, the same deceive thee, and destroy the way of thy steps.

Ver. 12.  Women.  "Let no women be our senate, as the impious Porphyrius objects."  The scribes and Pharisees sought for lucre and pleasure.  The teacher approved by the Church must excite tears and not laughter; he must correct sinners, and pronounce no one blessed.  S. Jer.  H.


--- The last kings of Juda were real tyrants, and weak as women.  C.


--- Blessed.  Prot. marg. and the text has, "lead thee."


13 The Lord standeth up to judge, and he standeth to judge the people.


14 The Lord will enter into judgment with the ancients of his people, and its princes: for you have devoured the vineyard, and the spoil of the poor is in your house. 15 Why do you consume my people, and grind the faces of the poor? saith the Lord the God of hosts. 16 And the Lord said: Because the daughters of Sion are haughty, and have walked with stretched out necks, and wanton glances of their eyes, and made a noise as they walked with their feet and moved in a set pace:

Ver. 16.  Pace.  Prot. "and making a tinkling with their feet," (H.) by means of little rings round their legs.  C.  Stridore ad se juvenes vocat.  S. Jer. ep. xlvii.


--- The daughters of Sion, denote all the cities and villages which were defaced by the Chaldees, and still more by the Romans, forty years after Christ.  S. Jer.  W.

17 The Lord will make bald the crown of the head of the daughters of Sion, and the Lord will discover their hair.

Ver. 17.  Bald.  Like slaves.  Deut. xxi. 12.


--- Hair.  Heb. and Sept. "shame."

18 In that day the Lord will take away the ornaments of shoes, end little moons,

Ver. 18.  Of shoes.  Heb. "gold tissue."  Ps. xliv. 14.  This term occurs no where else, and many of these superfluous ornaments are not well known.  But we may conclude that they are pernicious to a state, and hateful to God.  C.


--- Decorem...invitatorem libidinis scimus.  Tert. cult.

19 And chains and necklaces, and bracelets, and bonnets, 20 And bodkins, and ornaments of the legs, and tablets, and sweet balls, and earrings, 21 And rings, and jewels hanging on the forehead, 22 And changes of apparel, and short cloaks, and fine linen, and crisping pins, 23 And looking-glasses, and lawns, and headbands, and fine veils. 24 And instead of a sweet smell there shall be stench, and instead of a girdle, a cord, and instead of curled hair, baldness, and instead of a stomacher, haircloth.

Ver. 24.  Stench.  The Jews are noted on this account, as if in consequence of this curse, or of their being confined to prisons, &c.  Fœtentium Judæorum et tumultuantium sæpe tædio percitus.


--- M. Aurelius "was often weary of the stinking and seditious Jews."  Marcellin ii.

25 Thy fairest men also shall fall by the sword, and thy valiant ones in battle.

Ver. 25.  Fairest.  They shall not be spared.  C.


--- "As they have perished by their beauty, their fairest," &c.  Chal.

26 And her gates shall lament and mourn, and she shall sit desolate on the ground.

Ver. 26.  Ground.  The posture of captives.  Lam. i. 1.

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