Ver. 1. The desert of the sea. So Babylon is here called, because from a city as full of people as the sea is with water, it was become a desert. Ch.
--- After its fall, it was mostly inundated. C. xiii. 20.
--- Land. Media and Persia, which lay to the south, and were not so beautiful as the environs of Babylon.
Ver. 2. Spoileth. Baltassar is incorrigible, or his opponents must proceed. C.
--- Elam; that is, O Persia: (Ch.) Cyrus, and Darius, the Mede. C.
--- The former nation was weak, and the latter strong. W.
--- Cease. The enemy will shew no pity; nor shall I; as Babylon did not heretofore. H.
Ver. 3. Pain. He bewails the crimes and the fall of Babylon, which at this time was in amity with Ezechias. v. 10. C.
Ver. 4. Babylon. Prot. "the night of my pleasure hath he turned into fear unto me." Sept. "My soul is turned into fear." H.
Ver. 5. Drink. Persians refresh yourselves.
--- Take up. Heb. "anoint." He may also allude to the Babylonians, who were feasting.
Ver. 7. Camel. These two riders are the kings of the Persians and Medes. Ch.
--- The sentinel, placed by Isaias, in spirit, or rather by the king of Babylon, brings these tidings. C.
Ver. 8. Out. Lit. "He cried, a lion." H.
--- Cyrus appears like one. Sept. "And call Urias to the watch-tower," &c. C. viii. 2.
Ver. 9. Horsemen, drawn by the ass and camel. v. 7. This was verified long after.
Ver. 10. Floor: you who must shortly be reduced to the utmost distress. Baladan was friendly to Ezechias. But Assaradon having seized Babylon, took Manasses prisoner; and the city thenceforward continued to fill up the measure of its sins. C.
Ver. 11. Duma. That is, Idumea, or Edom. Ch.
--- It was a city of that country, twenty miles from Eleutheropolis. S. Jer.
--- Assaradon desolated Idumea the following year. v. 16. The Jews absurdly apply to Rome what is said of Edom. S. Jer. C.
Ver. 12. Night. Instead of joy, I must announce dreadful things. H.
Ver. 13. Arabia. This sentence is not in the Rom. (C.) or Alex. Sept. (H.) and Dedan is a city of Idumea. C.
--- The Israelites are threatened. W.
ArabiaArabia, the desert, which was peopled by various nations. Arab means, "a mixture, or assemblage," as well as "the night, and a fruitless country." Sept. seem to have read abor, "all the kings of the other side" the Euphrates, who were also called Arabs. See C. iv. 24.
Ver. 14. Water. To neglect this was to be accessary to another's death, in those dreary regions. C. xvi. 3. Deut. xxiii. 2.
Ver. 16. Hireling; counting precisely. C. xvi. 14. C.
--- Cedar: Arabia, (Ch.) near to Edom. C.