Ver. 1. Petra. Heb. selah, "the rock." H.
--- Our Saviour spring from Ruth, the Moabitess. M.
--- The original may insinuate, that the king of the country had neglected to pay the usual tribute to Juda. 4 K. iii. 4. C.
--- "Send the lamb to the ruler," &c. Tournemine. Amid scenes of distress, the prophet perceives that the Saviour will proceed from one of this nation. W.
Ver. 2. Arnon. They shall not be able to fly over, or to escape the conqueror.
ArnonRiver of Moab: Wâdy el-Môjib. --- Runs from the east, almost in the same direction as the torrent of Zared, but empties itself into the Dead Sea higher up, near the mouth of the Jordan. C.
Ver. 3. Night. Seek a retreat in the darkest places; or protect Israel when they shall flee before the Assyrians. Their cruelty is thus insinuated. Amos i.
Ver. 4. Dust. Theglathphalassar. I need not exhort you to receive my people, as I know your dispositions, and they are out of danger. C.
Ver. 5. Just. This regards Christ, (S. Jer.) prefigured by (H.) Ezechias. C.
Ver. 7. Walls. Heb. "Kir-hareseth." C. xv. 1. H.
Ver. 8. Lords. Princes of Jerusalem, (Lam. i. 1.) or of Assyria. C.
--- Sea. Of Sodom, even as far as Jazer, (H.) in the tribe of Ruben. C.
Ver. 9. My tears. C. xv. 5. H.
--- I announce a different sort of music from that which is customary in times of harvest, and of vintage. The liquor shall be tears. C. lxiii. 2. Jer. xlviii. 32. 33. C.
Ver. 10. Carmel. This name is often taken to signify a fair and fruitful hill or field, such as Mount Carmel is. Ch.
--- It means, "the vine of God." C.
CarmelCarmel. Not where Elias dwelt, but a city and mountain 10 miles east of Eleutheropolis. Nabal rendered it famous by his imprudence, (1 K. xxv.) and Saul by a triumphal arch, 1 K. xv. 12. --- Carmel, so famous for the miracles of Elias, 3 K. xviii. 20. Josephus (Bel. ii. 17,) places it 120 stadia south of Ptolemais. This range of mountains extended northward through the tribes of Issachar and of Zabulon. Pliny (v. 17,) speaks of a promontory and of a town of this name. Here also the god Carmel was adored, having an altar, but no temple or image, as the ancients had decreed. Nec simulacrum Deo aut templum, (sic tradidere majores) ara tantum et reverentia. Tacit. Hist. ii. 78. --- Vespasian consulted the priest Basilides. Carmel means "the vineyard of the Lord," or the excellent vineyard, &c. It was so rich and beautiful as to become proverbial. The spouse compares the head of his beloved to Carmel. C. vii. 5. Isaias (xxxii. 15,) foretels that the deserts shall be equal to Carmel. It was covered with wood and fruit. S. Jerom in Isai. x. 18. Jer. iv. 26. The city, which was built upon this mountain, and which Pliny calls by the same name, was formerly styled Ecbatana. The oracle had denounced to Cambyses that he should die at Ecbatana, and he concluded that the city of Media was meant; but it was "that of Syria," says Herodotus, (iii. 64,) where he died.
Ver. 11. Wall. Kir-hareseth. v. 7. I am grieved at your misfortunes. C.
Ver. 12. Prevail. Chamos shall not be able to help them.
Ver. 13. That time. A long while ago. Ps. xcii. 2.
Ver. 14. Not many. It was laid waste in the third year of Ezechias. But its final destruction took place only five years after that of Jerusalem. C.
--- The wars against Moab continued three years, after which it was reduced to servitude. W.