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SEND forth, O Lord, the lamb, the ruler of the earth, from Petra of the desert, to the mount of the daughter of Sion.

Ver. 1.  Petra.  Heb. selah, "the rock."  H.


--- Our Saviour spring from Ruth, the Moabitess.  M.


--- The original may insinuate, that the king of the country had neglected to pay the usual tribute to Juda.  4 K. iii. 4.  C.


--- "Send the lamb to the ruler," &c.  Tournemine.  Amid scenes of distress, the prophet perceives that the Saviour will proceed from one of this nation.  W.

2 And it shall come to pass, that as a bird fleeing away, and as young ones flying out of the nest, so shall the daughters of Moab be in the passage of Arnon.

Ver. 2.  Arnon.  They shall not be able to fly over, or to escape the conqueror.


River of Moab: Wâdy el-Môjib. --- Runs from the east, almost in the same direction as the torrent of Zared, but empties itself into the Dead Sea higher up, near the mouth of the Jordan. C.

3 Take counsel, gather a council: make thy shadow as the night in the midday: hide them that flee, and betray not them that wander about.

Ver. 3.  Night.  Seek a retreat in the darkest places; or protect Israel when they shall flee before the Assyrians.  Their cruelty is thus insinuated.  Amos i.

4 My fugitives shall dwell with thee: O Moab, be thou a covert to them from the face of the destroyer: for the dust is at an end, the wretch is consumed: he hath failed, that trod the earth under foot.

Ver. 4.  Dust.  Theglathphalassar.  I need not exhort you to receive my people, as I know your dispositions, and they are out of danger.  C.

5 And a throne shall be prepared in mercy, and one shall sit upon it in truth in the tabernacle of David, judging and seeking judgment and quickly rendering that which is just.

Ver. 5.  Just.  This regards Christ, (S. Jer.) prefigured by (H.) Ezechias.  C.

6 We have heard of the pride of Moab, he is exceeding proud: his pride and his arrogancy, and his indignation is more than his strength.


7 Therefore shall Moab howl to Moab, every one shall howl: to them that rejoice upon the brick walls, tell ye their stripes.

Ver. 7.  Walls.  Heb. "Kir-hareseth."  C. xv. 1.  H.

8 For the suburbs of Hesebon are desolate, and the lords of the nations have destroyed the vineyard of Sabama: the branches thereof have reached even to Jazer: they have wandered in the wilderness, the branches thereof are left, they are gone over the sea.

Ver. 8.  Lords.  Princes of Jerusalem, (Lam. i. 1.) or of Assyria.  C.


--- Sea.  Of Sodom, even as far as Jazer, (H.) in the tribe of Ruben.  C.

9 Therefore I will lament with the weeping of Jazer the vineyard of Sabama: I will water thee with my tears, O Hesebon, and Eleale: for the voice of the treaders hath rushed in upon thy vintage, and upon thy harvest.

Ver. 9.  My tears.  C. xv. 5.  H.


--- I announce a different sort of music from that which is customary in times of harvest, and of vintage.  The liquor shall be tears.  C. lxiii. 2.  Jer. xlviii. 32. 33.  C.

10 And gladness and joy shall be taken away from Carmel, and there shall be no rejoicing nor shouting in the vineyards. He shall not tread out wine in the press that was wont to tread it out: the voice of the treaders I have taken away.

Ver. 10.  Carmel.  This name is often taken to signify a fair and fruitful hill or field, such as Mount Carmel is.  Ch.


--- It means, "the vine of God."  C.



Carmel. Not where Elias dwelt, but a city and mountain 10 miles east of Eleutheropolis. Nabal rendered it famous by his imprudence, (1 K. xxv.) and Saul by a triumphal arch, 1 K. xv. 12. --- Carmel, so famous for the miracles of Elias, 3 K. xviii. 20. Josephus (Bel. ii. 17,) places it 120 stadia south of Ptolemais. This range of mountains extended northward through the tribes of Issachar and of Zabulon. Pliny (v. 17,) speaks of a promontory and of a town of this name. Here also the god Carmel was adored, having an altar, but no temple or image, as the ancients had decreed. Nec simulacrum Deo aut templum, (sic tradidere majores) ara tantum et reverentia. Tacit. Hist. ii. 78. --- Vespasian consulted the priest Basilides. Carmel means "the vineyard of the Lord," or the excellent vineyard, &c. It was so rich and beautiful as to become proverbial. The spouse compares the head of his beloved to Carmel. C. vii. 5. Isaias (xxxii. 15,) foretels that the deserts shall be equal to Carmel. It was covered with wood and fruit. S. Jerom in Isai. x. 18. Jer. iv. 26. The city, which was built upon this mountain, and which Pliny calls by the same name, was formerly styled Ecbatana. The oracle had denounced to Cambyses that he should die at Ecbatana, and he concluded that the city of Media was meant; but it was "that of Syria," says Herodotus, (iii. 64,) where he died.

11 Wherefore my bowels shall sound like a harp for Moab, and my inward parts for the brick wall.

Ver. 11.  Wall.  Kir-hareseth.  v. 7.  I am grieved at your misfortunes.  C.

12 And it shall come to pass, when it is seen that Moab is wearied on his high places, that he shall go in to his sanctuaries to pray, and shall not prevail.

Ver. 12.  Prevail.  Chamos shall not be able to help them.

13 This is the word, that the Lord spoke to Moab from that time:

Ver. 13.  That time.  A long while ago.  Ps. xcii. 2.

14 And now the Lord hath spoken, saying: In three years, as the years of a hireling, the glory of Moab shall be taken away for all the multitude of the people, and it shall be left small and feeble, not many.

Ver. 14.  Not many.  It was laid waste in the third year of Ezechias.  But its final destruction took place only five years after that of Jerusalem.  C.


--- The wars against Moab continued three years, after which it was reduced to servitude.  W.

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Holy Spirit