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WOE to them that make wicked laws: and when they write, write injustice:

Ver. 1.  Injustice.  These great ones excite God's indignation.  C.


--- Jeroboam forbidding any to go to Jerusalem; and the Pharisees establishing their wicked traditions, ruined all.  W.

2 To oppress the poor in judgment, and do violence to the cause of the humble of my people: that widows might be their prey, and that they might rob the fatherless. 3 What will you do in the day of visitation, and of the calamity which cometh from afar? to whom will ye flee for help? and where will ye leave your glory?

Ver. 3.  Afar.  When Salmanasar shall come from Ninive to destroy Samaria, to punish the people for their idolatry (C.) and oppressions.  H.


--- Glory.  Golden calves, (Ose. viii. 5. and x. 5.) or possessions.  C. ix. 8.

4 That you be not bowed down under the bond, and fall with the slain? In all these things his anger is not turned away, but his hand is stretched out still. 5 Woe to the Assyrian, he is the rod and the staff of my anger, and my indignation is in their hands.

Ver. 5.  Woe.  Or come on, Heus, though (C.) ho is ordinarily rendered, alas!  It here indicates that God makes use of this scourge with regret, and will afterwards consign it to the flames.  H.


--- The prophet speaks of Salmanasar, or of Sennacherib.  S. Cyr.  S. Jer.

6 I will send him to a deceitful nation, and I will give him a charge against the people of my wrath, to take away the spoils, and to lay hold on the prey, and to tread them down like the mire of the streets.

Ver. 6.  Deceitful.  Heb. "hypocritical," joining my worship with that of idols.  C.


--- They had solemnly promised to serve the Lord.  Ex. xix. 8.  W.

7 But he shall not take it so, and his heart shall not think so: but his heart shall be set to destroy, and to cut off nations not a few.

Ver. 7.  So.  He will not think that he is executing my vengeance, supposing that he conquers by his own power.

8 For he shall say: 9 Are not my princes as so many kings? is not Calano as Charcamis: and Emath as Arphad? is not Samaria as Damascus?

Ver. 9.  As.  Lit. "altogether kings."  H.


--- Thus Nabuchodonosor kept the conquered princes for derision.  Hab. i. 10.  Judg. i. 7.


--- Arphad, Arad, or rather Raphanæ.  Jer. xlix. 23.


--- Damascus.  These two cities were not yet subdued.



Arphad (2Ki 18:34, etc.), Assyr.: Arpaddu: Tell 'Erfâd, 12 m. N. of Aleppo. --- Arphad, or Arad, an island and city on the continent, (C.) near Tyre.


Calano (Gen 10:10; Isa 10:9; Amos 6:2), in S. Babylonia, perhaps mod. Zerghûl.


Charcamis belonged to the Assyrian monarch, (Isa. x. 9.) who subdued the empire of Babylon. C. xxxiii. 11.

10 As my hand hath found the kingdoms of the idol, so also their idols of Jerusalem, and of Samaria.

Ver. 10.  Idols.  He looks upon the true God as no better than any idols, (4 K. xviii. 32.) and falsely supposes that the latter were adored in Jerusalem.  C.

11 Shall I not, as I have done to Samaria and her idols, so do to Jerusalem and her idols?

12 And it shall come to pass, that when the Lord shall have performed all his works in mount Sion, and in Jerusalem, I will visit the fruit of the proud heart of the king of Assyria, and the glory of the haughtiness of his eyes.

Ver. 12.  Works.  Humbling and terrifying Ezechias and his subjects, who were reduced to great distress, in order to avert the impending war.  H.


--- Eyes.  The Assyrians were punished in their turn.



Assyria. The successors of Cyrus now ruled over those countries, (C.) which had belonged to the most potent Assyrian and Chaldean monarchs; and therefore the titles are given to them indiscriminately. T.

13 For he hath said: By the strength of my own hand I have done it, and by my own wisdom I have understood: and I have removed the bounds of the people, and have taken the spoils of the princes, and as a mighty man hath pulled down them that sat on high. 14 And my hand hath found the strength of the people as a nest; and as eggs are gathered, that are left, so have I gathered all the earth: and there was none that moved the wing, or opened the mouth, or made the least noise.

Ver. 14.  Nest.  Some put these words in the mouth of God.  Tert. Abdias 4.


--- But they shew the insolence of Sennacherib.

15 Shall the axe boast itself against him that cutteth with it? or shall the saw exalt itself against him by whom it is drawn? as if a rod should lift itself up against him that lifteth it up, and a staff exalt itself, which is but wood.

Ver. 15.  Axe.  The Assyrian has no right to boast.  What can man do without God's assistance?  C.


--- Gratiæ tuæ deputo et quæcumque non feci mala.  S. Aug. Conf. ii. 7.


--- Sennacherib persecuted the Jews of his own free will, though he was God's instrument.  W.

16 Therefore the sovereign Lord, the Lord of hosts, shall send leanness among his fat ones: and under his glory shall be kindled a burning, as it were the burning of a fire.

Ver. 16.  Fire.  The Jews assert, that 185,000 perished by an inward burning, so that only ten men were left.  v. 19.  S. Jer.

17 And the light of Israel shall be as a fire, and the Holy One thereof as a flame: and his thorns and his briers shall be set on fire, and shall be devoured in one day.

Ver. 17.  Light.  God.  H.


--- Thorns.  Private soldiers.  C.

18 And the glory of his forest, and of his beautiful hill, shall be consumed from the soul even to the flesh, and he shall run away through fear.

Ver. 18.  Glory.  Officers.


--- Flesh.  Or body.  All shall perish.  H.


--- Fear.  Sennacherib escaped alone, and fell by the sword of his own sons.

19 And they that remain of the trees of his forest shall be so few, that they shall easily be numbered, and a child shall write them down. 20 And it shall come to pass in that day, that the remnant of Israel, and they that shall escape of the house of Jacob, shall lean no more upon him that striketh them: but they shall lean upon the Lord the Holy One of Israel, in truth.

Ver. 20.  Israel now submitted to Ezechias, as their kingdom was overturned in the sixth year of his reign, eight years before Sennacherib's arrival.  Isaias speaks of this time, and therefore makes no distinction of the kingdoms.  Striketh the Assyrian.

21 The remnant shall be converted, the remnant, I say, of Jacob, to the mighty God. 22 For if thy people, O Israel, shall be as the sand of the sea, a remnant of them shall be converted, the consumption abridged shall overflow with justice.

Ver. 22.  Converted.  This was partly verified in the children of Israel who remained after the devastations of the Assyrians, in the time of king Ezechias: and partly in the conversion of a remnant of the Jews to the faith of Christ.  Ch.


--- 4 K. xviii. 3.  Rom. ix. 27.  The apostle follows the Sept. (C.) "and if the people of Israel be."


--- Converted.  Sept. "saved, for perfecting the word and abridging in justice.  Because God, the Lord of hosts, will make an abridged word in the universe."  H.


--- As the apostle has explained this passage, "every other interpretation must cease."  S. Jer.


--- The few who were converted under Ezechias were a figure of those who should embrace the faith of Christ.  C.


--- Consumption.  That is, the number of them cut short, and reduced to few, shall flourish in the abundance of justice.  Ch.


--- Heb. "the desolation is decreed, justice shall overflow."  God will treat all with rigour.  Nah. i. 8.  The incredulous Jews shall be rejected.  v. 23.  Rom. ix.


23 For the Lord God of hosts shall make a consumption, and an abridgment in the midst of all the land. 24 Therefore, thus saith the Lord the God of hosts: O my people that dwellest in Sion, be not afraid of the Assyrian: he shall strike thee with his rod, and he shall lift up his staff over thee in the way of Egypt.

Ver. 24.  Egypt.  He sent Rabsaces from Lachis, when he set out to meet Tharaca.  4 K. xix.

25 For yet a little and a very little while, and my indignation shall cease, and my wrath shall be upon their wickedness.

Ver. 25.  Little.  Twenty-eight years, (Ps. lxxxix. 4.) or he alludes to the destruction which took place in a single night, (C.) or in a moment.  v. 16.  H.

26 And the Lord of hosts shall raise up a scourge against him, according to the slaughter of Madian in the rock of Oreb, and his rod over the sea, and he shall lift it up in the way of Egypt.

Ver. 26.  Oreb.  Judg. vii. 25.


--- And his.  Moses thus let loose the waters of the Red Sea on the Egyptians, by stretching forth his rod.  C.


27 And it shall come to pass in that day, that his burden shall be taken away from off thy shoulder, and his yoke from off thy neck, and the yoke shall putrify at the presence of the oil.

Ver. 27.  Oil.  That is, by the sweet unction of divine mercy.  Ch.


--- Chal. "before the anointed," in consideration of Ezechias and Isaias.  In the higher sense, it denotes the victory of Christ over the devil.  C.

28 He shall come into Aiath, he shall pass into Magron: at Machmas he shall lay up his carriages.

Ver. 28.  Into Aiath, &c.  Here the prophet describes the march of the Assyrians under Sennacherib; and the terror they should carry with them; and how they should suddenly be destroyed.  Ch.

29 They have passed in haste, Gaba is our lodging: Rama was astonished, Gabaath of Saul fled away.

Ver. 29.  Lodging.  Here, say the Assyrians, we will encamp.

30 Lift up thy voice, O daughter of Gallim, attend, O Laisa, poor Anathoth.


Anathoth was a sacerdotal town in Benjamin. M. --- Anathoth, a village to the north of Jerusalem, to which many priests had retired, though it did not belong to them. C.

31 Medemena is removed: ye inhabitants of Gabim, take courage.

Ver. 31.  Take.  Prot. "gather themselves to flee."  H.

32 It is yet day enough, to remain in Nobe: he shall shake his hand against the mountain of the daughter of Sion, the hill of Jerusalem.

Ver. 32.  Nobe.  He may arrive thither shortly, in the environs of Jerusalem.  C.


--- Sept. "exhort to-day, that they may continue on the road.  Comfort with the hand the daughter of Sion, thou rock and hills within Jerusalem."  H.


--- Hand.  As Nicanor did against the temple.  2 Mac. xv. 32.  C.

33 Behold the sovereign Lord of hosts shall break the earthen vessel with terror, and the tall of stature shall be cut down, and the lofty shall be humbled.

Ver. 33.  Vessel.  Like Gideon, when he attacked Madian.  v. 26.  Judg. vii. 19.  Sept. "the nobles."  H.


--- Heb. "their beauty."  The empire of Assyria shall presently fall.  C.

34 And the thickets of the forest shall be cut down with iron, and Libanus with its high ones shall fall.

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