Ver. 1. At. The Sept. omit the 20 verses following. But Grabe's edition has them marked with asterisks, (H.) as being supplied from Theodotion, &c. The Vat. copy gives a great part, with some circumstances which occur no where else. C. xii. 24. C.
--- The wife of Jeroboam is there called Ano, (M.) the elder sister of the queen of Egypt, Thekemina. See C. xi. 19; where Adad marries another sister. H.
--- Time. This expression does not determine the year. S. Chrys. &c.
--- The passage in the Vat. Sept. seems to place this death before Jeroboam ascended the throne: but it took place rather at the end of his reign, v. 14. Abia seems to have been his eldest son, and fit for command; so that the people mourn for him, which they would hardly have done for an infant. C.
Ver. 2. Dress. As if the prophet, who could dive into futurity, could be thus imposed upon. Jeroboam was aware that he would be full of indignation at the changes which had been introduced. He might also fear, lest his wife might be exposed to danger in (C.) or near (H.) the enemy's country, (C.) and the people would have been more convinced of the vanity of their idols, if they had seen that it was necessary to have recourse to a prophet of the true God. M.
--- The mother might ask without the least suspicion, "Will my son recover?"
--- Silo might still be attached to the service of God, in consequence of the ark residing there so long, and the presence of the revered Ahias; so that, if it formed a part of the dominions of Israel, (T.) as it was in the tribe of Ephraim, though nearer Jerusalem than Sichem, (C.) Jeroboam might reasonably fear lest his wife should be treated with indignity. T.
Ver. 3. Cracknels. Heb. nikkudim, "cakes full of holes," &c. Jos. ix. 12. C.
--- Sept. give a double translation, "cakes and raisins." Arab. "fruits." Syr. adds "dried." It was customary to make presents to the prophets. 1 K. ix. 7. C.
--- But these were mean, that the woman might not be known. D.
--- It is not said that Ahias deigned to receive them. S. Jer. in Mic. iii.
Ver. 4. Dim. Heb. "swelled," &c. C.
--- Sept. inform us that the prophet was 60 years old. H.
Ver. 6. Tidings. Heb. "I am a hard messenger to thee." C.
Ver. 9. Strange gods; that is, foreign gods: which expression destroys the opinion of those who imagine that Jeroboam designed by his calves to worship the Lord God of Israel. Ch.
--- Back. Lit. "body."
Ver. 10. Wall. Every male child, or every dog. See 1 K. xxv. 22. H.
--- The Heb. word mashtin, in Spanish and French, signifies a "shepherd's dog."
--- Israel. This proverbial expression signifies, that even those who keep at home, and meddle not with the affairs of war, will not escape; (C.) nor shall those who have run away from the field of battle, (H.) nor the most precious or contemptible things be spared. Deut. xxxii. 36. 4 K. xiv. 26. M.
--- Clean. This family is compared to something most disgusting, (H.) because it had introduced idolatry, and the prediction against it was literally fulfilled by Baasa, (C. xv. 29. T.) "as the vintner seeks in the vineyard even for the last grape." Syr. and Arab.
Ver. 11. Devour. They shall have the burial of asses. Jer. xxii. 19.
Ver. 13. Word from. Heb. or "thought towards." Grot.
--- He has entertained sentiments of piety (C.) in the midst of a wicked court; therefore, God will hasten to draw him out of the midst of iniquity. H.
--- The Rabbins say that he had pulled down the walls, which his father had built, to prevent the people from going to Jerusalem. C.
--- God was please to shew mercy to him. M.
Ver. 14. Time. Prot. "But what? even now." The young prince, (H.) who was the firmest support of the family, was presently hurried away. Abia, king of Juda, slew above 500,000 of Jeroboam's subjects at once; and Baasa exterminated his family. C.
--- The latter had now begun his conspiracy. Abulensis, q. 26.
Ver. 15. Water. The kingdom of Israel was continually agitated with wars.
--- River Euphrates, by degrees. The kings of Assyria verified these predictions; and we know not what is become of these ten tribes. C.
--- To provoke. These people did not perhaps design (H.) to make God their enemy, no more than their king did, v. 9. But their actions had that effect. Such expressions denote not the final cause, but the sequel of other facts, without direct intention. W.
--- Yet these sins might probably be called sins of malice. H.
--- They were all involved in ruin, and because they had been accomplices in wickedness. M.
Ver. 16. Sin. This is the common effect of evil example in kings. Plus exemplo quam peccato nocent. Cicero, Leg. iii. "As it is esteemed a sort of service to imitate the customs and vices of the king; they laid aside all piety, lest they might seem to upbraid the king with his impiety, if they should live in a virtuous manner." Lact. v. 6. The crimes of kings are seldom confined to their own persons. C.
Ver. 17. Thersa. Sept. inform us that Jeroboam had built this place, which the call Sarira, while he was employed by Solomon. No wonder, therefore, that it is not mentioned by Josue. Its exact situation is not known, though it must have been very delightful, since Solomon compares the spouse to it. C.
--- Where we read sweet, (Cant. vi. 3.) Heb. has, "Thou art beautiful....as Thersa, and comely as Jerusalem." Hither Jeroboam had removed his court from Sichem. T.
--- Some place Thersa in the tribe of Manasses; (Adric.) others, in that of Ephraim. Bonfrere.
--- House. Heb. "door," or gate of the city, when the prophet had denounced that the child should die, (v. 12.) unless the palace was contiguous to the walls. H.
Ver. 19. The book of the words of the days of the kings of Israel. This book, which is often mentioned in the Book of Kings, is long since lost. For as to the books of Paralipomenon, or Chronicles, (which the Hebrews call the words of the days) they were certainly written after the Book of Kings, since they frequently refer to them; (Ch.) and they also remit us to these journals for farther information. H.
Ver. 21. Forty. Some suspect there is a mistake, and that it should be twenty-one. See 1 Par. xxii. 5. Grotius D.
--- Hardouin dates from the æra of Solomon. Roboam was young, in the Scripture style. But he might be forty-one years old. C. xii. 10. C.
--- Ammonitess. She probably perverted her son; (M.) so that he only continued three years faithful to the Lord; (2 Par. xi. 17.) when his people readily imitated the idolatry of Israel, as they had been already staggered in their faith by the conduct of Solomon. C.
Ver. 23. High hill. Such places of devotion had been tolerated, before the temple was built: but now they were deemed profane. C.
Ver. 24. The effeminate. Catamites, or men addicted to unnatural lust. Ch.
--- This crime had been punished in the Sodomites, and in the people of Chanaan, and of Benjamin. Yet they continued prevalent in the country. C. xv. 12. and 4 K. xxiii. 7. and Isai. ii. 6. and 2 Mac. iv. 12. C.
--- These were perpetrated in honour of Venus, Priapus, &c. M. See Deut. xxiii. 17. H.
Ver. 25. Sesac. See C. xi. 40. He was allied to Jeroboam, (C.) so that he might come to his assistance, (H.) being attracted by the ivory throne, (Rabbins) and immense riches of Jeroboam. C.
--- Roboam was informed by Semeias, that resistance would be fruitless; and being humbled, he repaired more frequently to the temple, v. 18. But his piety was of short duration, as it was influenced only by fear. 2 Par. xii. 14.
Ver. 27. Hand. Sym. "the place where the courtiers" (guards) stood, (H.) in the hall; (C.) or he made the guards carry these shields before him, v. 28. H.
Ver. 30. Always. The two kingdoms were constantly divided, and did each other all the harm they could; though we know not that they ever came to a pitched battle. Roboam was too great a coward. 2 Par. xiii. 7.
Ver. 31. Roboam. He deserved some commendation for procuring provisions, and fortifying his dominion; (2 Par. xi. 5, 12.) but was a prince devoid of wisdom and religion. He married 18 wives and 60 concubines. The son of Maacha, his most favourite queen, succeeded him, after he had reigned seventeen years, and lived fifty-eight. C.
--- Semeias and Addo wrote his history. 2 Par. xii. 15.