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HE made also an altar of brass twenty cubits long, and twenty cubits broad, and ten cubits high.

Ver. 1.  Altar of holocausts, much larger than that of Moses.  The one which was built after the captivity, was a square of fifteen cubits.  This of Solomon was only ten in height.  A sloping ascent was made up to it, according to Josephus; (Bel. vi. 5. or v. 14.) or the steps were closed in, if we believe others.  See Ex. xxvii. 1. and xx. 26.  It is thought (C.) that the inside of the altar was filled with earth, (M.) or with rough stones: (Ex. xx. 24.  D.) but that is not certain, with regard to the brazen altar.  See 1 Mac. iv. 44. 47.  C.

2 Also a molten sea of ten cubits from brim to brim, round in compass: it was five cubits high, and a line of thirty cubits compassed it round about.

Ver. 2.  Sea, or great brazen vessel, and some other things that were not in the tabernacle of Moses, whose plan was followed, but with greater magnificence.  W.


3 And under it there was the likeness of oxen, and certain engravings on the outside of ten cubits compassed the belly of the sea, as it were with two rows.

Ver. 3.  Oxen.  In 3 K. vii. 24. we read Heb. "knops," (H.) or "apples."


--- Of ten.  Heb. "ten in a cubit."  Hence there must have been 600 heads of oxen, as the sea was thirty cubits in circumference, and there were two rows.  C.


--- Others suppose that here were only five in each row, or only one in each cubit.  See Vat. and 3 K.  The Sept. and Syr. omit this verse.  C.


--- Yet it is found in the best editions of the Sept.  H.

4 And the oxen were cast: and the sea itself was set upon the twelve oxen, three of which looked toward the north, and other three toward the west: and other three toward the south, and the other three that remained toward the east, and the sea stood upon them: and the hinder parts of the oxen were inward under the sea.

Ver. 4.  Cast.  Heb. adds, "when it (the sea) was cast."  H.


--- They were done at the same time, (T.) and were perhaps intended to let out the water.  The twelve oxen, which supported the sea, were not cast along with it.  D.

5 Now the thickness of it was a handbreadth, and the brim of it was like the brim of a cup, or of a crisped lily: and it held three thousand measures.

Ver. 5.  Three.  3 K. two, may specify the usual quantity that was contained, though the vessel would absolutely hold a thousand measures, or baths, more.  H.

6 He made also ten lavers: and he see five on the right hand, and five on the left, to wash in them all such things as they mere to offer for holocausts: but the sea was for the priests to wash in.

Ver. 6.  Holocaust, as well as all the necessary utensils.


--- Priests.  They did not bathe in the sea, but drew water into other vessels.  The Chal. supposes that the work of Beseleel was for the high priest alone.  C.

7 And he made ten golden candlesticks, according to the form which they were commanded to be made by: and he set them in the temple, five on the right hand, and five on the left. 8 Moreover also ten tables: and he set them in the temple, five on the right side, and five on the left. Also a hundred bowls of gold. 9 He made also the court of the priests, and a great hall, and doors in the hall, which he covered with brass.

Ver. 9.  Hall, (basilicam.)  Sept. use the same term (aulh) as just before is rendered court; and the Prot. make no distinction, though the Heb. terms be different.  Sept. render chatsar, "the court" of the people.  There, we know, that Solomon had his tribune.  C. vi. 13.  Ezechiel (xliii. 14.) distinguishes two; the great, lower or outward, (C. chatsar) or court, and that of the priests, (H.) which he styles the less, &c.  The principal door lay to the east.

10 And he set the sea on the right side over against the east toward the south.

Ver. 10.  Right, though to the left of those who entered the temple.

11 And Hiram made caldrons, and fleshhooks, and bowls: and finished all the king's work in the house of God:

12 That is to say, the two pillars, and the pommels, and the chapiters, and the network, to cover the chapiters over the pommels.

Ver. 12.  Pommels, (epistylia.)  Heb. "cordons," or rows of pomegranates, (3 K. vii. 18.) each consisting of one hundred; so that at the two pillars were adorned with a double row, both together would have four hundred.  C.


--- The precise number is fixed at ninety-six for each row.  Jer. lii. 23.  T.

13 And four hundred pomegranates, and two wreaths of network, so that two rows of pomegranates were joined to each wreath, to cover the pommels, and the chapiters of the pillars. 14 He made also bases, and lavers, which he set upon the bases: 15 One sea, and twelve oxen under the sea; 16 And the caldrons, and fleshhooks, and bowls. All the vessels did Hiram his father make for Solomon in the house of the Lord of the finest brass.

Ver. 16.  His father.  Heb. Abib, which is considered by some as a surname, (M.) or the title may be given to Hiram, on account of his skill.  C.


--- He is so called by the king of Tyre, (C. ii. 13.) for having instructed him in the true faith.  W.

17 In the country near the Jordan did the king cast them, in a clay ground between Sochot and Saredatha.

Ver. 17.  Saredatha, or Sarthan, (3 K. vii. 46.) not far from Bethsan.  3 K. iv. 12.  C.

18 And the multitude of vessels was innumerable, so that the weight of the brass was not known. 19 And Solomon made all the vessels for the house of God, and the golden altar, and the tables, upon which were the leaves of proposition,

20 The candlesticks also of most pure gold with their lamps to give light before the oracle, according to the manner. 21 And certain flowers, and lamps, and golden tongs: all were made of the finest gold.

Ver. 21.  Flowers.  They represented lilies or other flowers (T.) full-blown, when the lamps were burning.  All the branches were of pure gold.  C.

22 The vessels also for the perfumes, and the censers, and the bowls, and the mortars, of pure gold. And he graved the doors of the inner temple, that is, for the holy of holies: and the doors of the temple without were of gold. And thus all the work was finished which Solomon made in the house of the Lord.

Ver. 22.  Mortars, to hold the fine flour.  M.


--- And thus.  Here the fifth chapter commences, in Heb. and Sept.

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