Ver. 3. The host of heaven. The sun, moon, and stars, (Ch.) in imitation of the Phœnicians and ancient Chanaanites.
Ver. 5. Courts of the Gentiles and of Israel, (M.) though afterwards he also placed idols even in the court of the priests, v. 7. Salien, A. 3340.
--- But we find no express mention of the court of the Gentiles, till after the captivity; (C.) so that the two courts mean those of the priests and of Israel. Villalpand, Sa. &c.
Ver. 6. Valley. Heb. Ge-ben-hinnon, "the vale of the son of Ennom," (H.) a Jebusite, who had formerly possessed that part of the valley of Cedron. M.
--- Syr. write Gena, whence comes geenna a place at the foot of Moria, and the sink of the city. A constant fire was kept up to burn dead bodies. Kimchi. D.
Ver. 7. Graven. Prot. "a carved image (the idol which he had made) in," &c. It seems to have been sacred to the grove, (H.) or a representation of Astarte, 4 K. xxi. 7. The ark was taken away, (C. xxv. 3.) to make place for this impure deity, which had four (S. Basil) or five faces, (Euseb. Salien) that people might adore it on all sides.
Ver. 9. Seduced. Using the arts of seduction, as well as open force. Heb. "Manasses made Juda....err," 4 K. xxi. 16. There is a fund of malice in the human heart, which easily prevails on people to yield, on such occasions, if the grace of God do not support them. Yet, as they are not still without a sense of duty and religion, many will readily comply with the invitations of a pious king, when he earnestly endeavours to reform his people. But these conversions too frequently prove false and unstable. C. xxix. 36. H.
Ver. 10. Spoke, by his prophets. 4 K.
Ver. 11. Captains; probably Tharthan. A. 3328. About five years before, Asarhaddon had made himself master of Babylon, to which place the captive king was brought, in the 22d year of his reign. 4 K. xx. 10. &c. Isai. xxii.
--- And carried. Heb. "among the thorns, and bound him with fetters (Prot.) of brass; (Jun. &c.) or, "they took Manasses with a hook," insidiously. He might have retired to some desert place, as the Israelites did, to avoid the fury of the Philistines. 1 K. xiii. 6. C.
--- Chains. Vatable says, "two." M.
Ver. 12. Distress. "When he had been conducted to Babylon, and cast into a brazen vessel full of holes, over a fire, he called upon all the names of the idols, which he was accustomed to adore; and, as he was not heard, nor set free by them, he recollected what he had often heard repeated by his father: When though shalt call upon me in tribulation, and shalt be converted, I will hear thee graciously; as it is written in Deut. (see C. iv. 29. H.) and his prayer was thus heard by the Lord, and he was delivered and brought back to his kingdom, like Habacuc." S. Jer. Trad.
--- The author of the imperfect work on S. Matthew, (among the works of S. Chrys. hom. 1. H.) says, that Manasses was barely allowed as much barley bread, and water mixed with vinegar, as would keep him alive. Whereupon, remembering the Lord, he had recourse to his clemency, and a miraculous flame surrounded him, and dissolving his chains, set him at liberty. Saos-duchin, the successor of Azarhaddon, probably restored him to his throne, some years after his captivity, or perhaps that very year, so that his repentance continued thirty-three years. C.
--- Prayed, a proof of the efficacy of sincere repentance. W.
Ver. 14. Without, including what is styled the second city; (4 K. xxii. 14,) or he perfected the works begun by his father, or repaired the wall which the Assyrians had thrown down, though we read not of their taking the city. C.
--- Fish-gate....to Ophel, from the north-eastern corner, to the place opposite to the eastern gate of the temple. C. xxvii. 3. M.
--- The fish-gate led towards Joppe, whence the city was supplied with fish. S. Jer. Trad.
--- It was also called David's gate, because it stood near this city. By it, the Chaldees afterwards rushed in. Soph. i. 10. T.
Ver. 16. And praise. Prot. "thanks-offerings." Sept. "a victim of salvation and praise." H.
--- The sacrifice might be accompanied with canticles.
--- Ps. xxvi. 6, &c. C.
Ver. 17. God. Heb. adds, "only," and not to idols. H.
--- This worship was not superstitious, but it was illegal; and it is a misfortune, that Manasses had not as much influence to guide the people in virtue, as he had formerly, to induce them to follow his example in idolatry. C.
--- He could not prevail upon them to destroy the high places. M.
Ver. 18. Prayer, which is not extant in Heb. but in Greek and Latin. As yet it is neither received for canonical, nor rejected by the Church. W.
--- Israel. That kingdom had been overturned in the sixth year of Ezechias. There was now no need of distinguishing the kings of Juda from those of Israel. The former seemed to have claimed authority over the whole country. 4 K. xxiii. 19. H.
Ver. 19. Contempt. Heb. "prevarication." Sept. "apostacy." M.
--- Chozai means "seers." Sept. Prot. H.
--- But it more probably signifies some particular prophet, (C.) Isaias, (S. Jer. Trad.) "Hanan," (Syr.) or "Saphan." Arab. version. C.
--- This work, less than the book of the kings of Israel, is now lost. M.
Ver. 20. House, in his own gardens, and not with the other kings. Grot. C.
Ver. 22. Made, though he had afterwards destroyed them. Amon endeavoured to restore their worship, (C.) adoring the same idols, and making other statues in their honour. D.
Ver. 23. Sins, inasmuch as he died in his guilt. Prot. "but Amon trespassed more and more," (H.) following the former bad example of Manasses, Jer. xv. D.
Ver. 25. Them. Heb. "all that had conspired against king Amon." H.