Ver. 1. Abia. The last syllable is neglected, 4 K. xviii. 2. H.
--- Some assert that she was a descendant of the high priest, who had been stoned. S. Jerom, Trad. C. xxiv. 20. T.
Ver. 3. Reign, in the assembly, which met to recognize his authority. Lyran.
--- Them, adorning them with plates of gold. 4 K. xviii. 16.
Ver. 4. Street, or court, before the eastern gate. C.
Ver. 5. Sanctuary, or temple, v. 7. The Jews suppose that idols had been placed in the very sanctuary: (Lyran) but why then were the doors shut? C.
Ver. 7. Sanctuary, or court of the priests, where the victims were slain. The blood of some was taken into the most holy place, on the day of expiation. C.
Ver. 8. Trouble. Heb. zuáe, (H.) is rendered vexation. Isai. xxviii. 19. Sept. "ecstasy." The Jews were frequently driven from their homes. M.
--- There were at a loss what to do, confounded and despised. H.
Ver. 9. Wives. C. xxviii. 8. C.
--- So had the wives and family of king Joram been treated. C. xxi. H.
Ver. 10. Covenant, swearing to observe the law given by Moses. M.
Ver. 11. Negligent. Heb. adds, "now," when every thing tends to open your eyes. H.
Ver. 16. Cedron, as Josias did with the idolatrous altars. 4 K. xxiii. 12. The priests brought what was unclean from the inner temple into the porch. H.
--- This labour lasted eight days, as the cleansing of the porches had done. C. D.
CedronCedron. Heb. nachal Kidron, may signify, "the shady torrent," or "vale," as it is styled by Josephus. It does not take its name from cedars. It is dry in summer, and when filled with water, in only three steps across. Doubdan xxvii. --- Cedron, to the east and south of Jerusalem, where Topheth and the sepulchres of the poor, and all unclean things, were placed. Here the pagans burnt their children in honour of Moloch. See 3 K. xv. 13. 2 Par. xxix. 16. and xxx. 14.
Brook of Cedron[Hebrew Náhál Qidhrôn, "Wâdi Qidron"; only once "fields of Qidron"; John 18:1, ho cheimarros ho Kedron; in R.V., Kidron]. The name designates in Holy Writ the ravine on the east of Jerusalem, between the Holy City and the Mount of Olives. The word Cedron is usually connected with the root Qadár, "to be dark", and taken to refer to the colour of the stream or ravine; but its exact origin and precise meaning are really unknown. The Valley of Cedron begins with a slight depression near the Tombs of the Judges, a mile and a quarter north-west of Jerusalem. It runs first south towards the Holy city, and then turns nearly east, passing to the north of the tombs of the Kings. Next, it bends to the right towards the south, deepening as it follows this general direction between Jerusalem and the Mount of Olives. Opposite St. Stephen's gate, it is fully 100 feet deep and about 400 feet broad; its bed is shaded by venerable olive-trees and crossed by an old bridge. Below the bridge, the valley presents the first traces of a torrent bed. It narrows gradually and sinks more rapidly leaving to the east the church of the tomb of the Blessed Virgin, and next, Gethsemani. A thousand feet from the old bridge, the valley is merely a deep gulley across which another bridge is thrown, and on the banks of which are, to the right, Mohammedan tombs, and to the left, the sepulchres of Josaphat, Absalom, St. James, and the Jewish cemetery. About a thousand feet farther, there is in a cave, on the right bank, the Fountain of the Virgin, and higher up, on the left, the village of Siloe. Somewhat farther down, the Tyropoeon valley falls from the right into the Cedron, which now expands down to the Valley of Hinnom. Here, the Cedron is about 200 yards wide, and has on its left the Mount of Offence. Shortly after the junction of the Valley of Hinom with the Cedron, there is Job's well, to the south of which Sir C. Warren found, in 1868-69, the shaft of a great rock-cut aqueduct. On leaving the Holy City, the Valley of the Cedron runs its winding and gradually precipitous course through the Wilderness of Judea to the north-western shore of the Dead Sea. The Cedron is perfectly dry during the summer and most of the winter. North of Jerusalem, it bears the name of Wâdi al-Jos (Valley of Nuts); between the city and the Mount of Olives, it is known as Wâdi Sitti Mariam (Valley of St. Mary), or again as the Valley of Josaphat (cf. Joel, iii, 2, 12); after leaving Jerusalem, it is called Wâdi en-Nâr (Valley of Fire), and also Wâdi er-Rahib (Valley of the Monks). Its whole length is some 20 miles in a straight line, and its descent nearly 4000 feet. Its bed east of Jerusalem is now about 40 feet higher than in ancient times. The Cedron is first mentioned in Holy Scripture in connection with David's flight from Absalom, during which he crossed it [2 Samuel 15:23]; and next, in connection with the prohibition to Semei against his ever crossing it [1 Kings 2:37]. It was at the torrent Cedron that King Asa burnt the filthy idol of his mother [1 Kings 15:13; 2 Chronicles 15:16]. It was into it that Ezechias and Josias cast all the impurities which had polluted the House of the Lord (cf. 2 Chronicles 29:16; 30:14; 2 Kings 23:4, 6, 12). The torrent Cedron is last mentioned in the O.T. in Jeremiah 31:40, apparently as part of the common cemetery of Jerusalem. In the New Testament it is spoken of only once, in connection with Christ's going forth over it to Gethsemani (John 18:1). In the present day it is the desired resting-place of both Jews and Mussulmans, and the supposed scene of Last Judgment.
Ver. 17. Month, Nisan, corresponding with our March, (M.) when Ezechias began his reign. Salien, A. 3309.
Ver. 19. Defiled. Heb. "cast out (C.) in his."
--- Forth. Heb. and Sept. "We have prepared and purified, behold they are," &c. H.
Ver. 21. Seven. Only one was prescribed for sins of ignorance. Lev. iv. 13. 22. S. Jer. Trad.
--- But the late transgressions were of a different nature; and the king consults his zeal, rather than what he was absolutely obliged to do.
--- Juda, to expiate the sins of the royal family, of priests, and people.
Ver. 25. Prophet. Moses had not required music, except on some occasions. Num. x. 10. But David acted by God's authority. The institution was designed to promote piety, and a love for religious meetings. Such sacred ceremonies are not to be considered as human inventions, for it was, &c. They command our utmost respect. C.
Ver. 27. Prepared, or ordained. M.
--- Heb. "with the instruments, by David."
Ver. 30. Princes of the priests. H.
--- Words; psalms. T.
--- Asaph, so famous for music. He had composed some psalms, (C.) and twelve bear his name. T.
--- But he might only have set them to music, (H.) or his band sung them. D.
--- Knee. Prot. "head." Sept. "they prostrated themselves."
Ver. 31. Added. Heb. and Sept. "answered," a term used in Scripture, though no question had been proposed. H.
--- Filled. You are, in some sense, priests. Prot. "you have consecrated yourselves." The people brought victims but the priests poured the blood round the altar, v. 34. H.
Ver. 33. Sheep, for peace-offerings. Jun. C.
--- They destined these victims for the use of the temple, (T.) that none might be wanting afterwards. C.
Ver. 34. Holocausts, as the law required. Lev. i. 6. See C. xxxv. 11. The skin might be taken off other victims, by laics.
--- Priests. Syr. "The Levites were more timid, or reserved than the priests, to purify themselves." C.
--- Both are indirectly accused of negligence. C. xxx. 15. The Heb. seems to give the preference to the latter, "for the Levites were more upright of heart, (Sept. willing) to purify themselves than the priests." But the Alex. Sept. may well agree with the Vulg. The ceremonies attending the purification of both, may be seen Ex. xxix. 1. Num. viii. 6. H.
--- The priests had not sufficient time to collect themselves with the purity required, on such a short warning; and the paucity induced the king to put off the Passover till the next month. C. xxx. 3. 15.
Ver. 36. Because. Heb. and Sept. "that the Lord had disposed his people, for the thing was done suddenly," (H.) to place no obstacle to this sudden change from one extreme to the other, at a time when the king was scarcely established on the throne. C.
--- Thus the people of England rejoiced, when the Catholic religion was re-established by the means of queen Mary and cardinal Pole. Philips. 9.
--- But the minds of the people are very fickle. Regis ad exemplum totus componitur orbis. Still the joy may show, that all love for truth is "not extinct," as the Cardinal argued from the people's conduct. Poli. ep. H.