Ver. 1. Ozias, called Azarias (4 K. xiv. 21. C.) improperly. H.
AilathThe same as Elath. --- Ailath, to the east. See Num. xxxiii. 13.
Ver. 4. Done. And was successful, as long as he attended to the high priest. Num. xxvii. 21. W.
Ver. 5. God, or who had the gift of intelligence and prophecy from God. Heb. "who was intelligent in the visions of God." Others have read birath, with the Sept. "in the fear;" or Chal. &c. "instructing in the fear of the Lord." The Jews childishly understand Zacharias to mean the king himself, in the early part of his reign. Others suppose the priest, who was slain by Joas, is designated. Lyran.
--- But this was rather his son (T. Cajet. C.) and successor, as well as a prophet, who had therefore a more perfect knowledge of God; though none can comprehend his being. H.
Ver. 6. In. Prot. "about Ashdod." Sept. "he built (or repaired) the cities of Azotus," to keep under the Philistines, who had revolted under Joram. C. xxi. 16.
AzotusAzotus, or as the Heb. writes, Asdod, on the Mediterranean, was noted for the temple of Dagon, (1 K. v. 1,) which Jonathas destroyed. Joseph. xxii. 8. C.
Ver. 7. Gurbaal. Gerera, (S. Jer. Trad.) or Gebal. Ps. lxxxii. 8. Sept. "the rock," or Petra, in Arabia, where Stephanus places the Gabalenes.
--- Ammonites. Heb. mehunim. Sept. "Mineans," (C. xx. 1. H.) upon the Red Sea, (Steph.) or Mediterranean, (Pliny vi. 28,) or in Arabia Felix. Strabo. M.
Ver. 8. Gifts. Tribute. C. xxvii. 5. C.
--- Victories. Prot. "the strengthened himself exceedingly." H.
Ver. 9. Corner. Repairing what Joas had demolished. 4 K. xiv. 13. T.
Ver. 10. Wilderness, for the protection of shepherds. 4 K. xvii. 9.
--- Plains. Heb. "valleys, and in the plains husbandmen, and vinedressers in the mountains, and in Carmel; for he loved the earth, or husbandry," like David. 1 Par. xvii. 25. &c.
--- Carmel, means, "the vine of God;" as both the mount in Juda, where Nabal resided, and that on the Mediterranean Sea, were famous for wine. Ozias probably cultivated the former mountain. C.
CarmelCarmel. Not where Elias dwelt, but a city and mountain 10 miles east of Eleutheropolis. Nabal rendered it famous by his imprudence, (1 K. xxv.) and Saul by a triumphal arch, 1 K. xv. 12. --- Carmel, so famous for the miracles of Elias, 3 K. xviii. 20. Josephus (Bel. ii. 17,) places it 120 stadia south of Ptolemais. This range of mountains extended northward through the tribes of Issachar and of Zabulon. Pliny (v. 17,) speaks of a promontory and of a town of this name. Here also the god Carmel was adored, having an altar, but no temple or image, as the ancients had decreed. Nec simulacrum Deo aut templum, (sic tradidere majores) ara tantum et reverentia. Tacit. Hist. ii. 78. --- Vespasian consulted the priest Basilides. Carmel means "the vineyard of the Lord," or the excellent vineyard, &c. It was so rich and beautiful as to become proverbial. The spouse compares the head of his beloved to Carmel. C. vii. 5. Isaias (xxxii. 15,) foretels that the deserts shall be equal to Carmel. It was covered with wood and fruit. S. Jerom in Isai. x. 18. Jer. iv. 26. The city, which was built upon this mountain, and which Pliny calls by the same name, was formerly styled Ecbatana. The oracle had denounced to Cambyses that he should die at Ecbatana, and he concluded that the city of Media was meant; but it was "that of Syria," says Herodotus, (iii. 64,) where he died.
Ver. 11. Doctor. Heb. shoter. Sept. "judge." Prot. "ruler." H.
--- The term is commonly understood of one who executes the sentence of the judge. But this employment does not suit a general, (C.) though such a one might well command. It many denote any "officer." H.
Ver. 15. Engines. They are here mentioned for the first time. C.
--- For the. Heb. "for he was wonderfully helped till he was established." H.
--- He invented may things for the defence of his kingdom. C.
Ver. 17. Azarias. The prophet, who had hitherto kept the king (H.) within bounds, was now no more, v. 5. T.
Ver. 18. To thee. For usurping spiritual authority, the king was opposed by the high priest; and God confirmed the sentence of the latter, by striking Ozias with the leprosy; on which account, the was not only cast out of the temple, but also lost his kingdom, being obliged to live apart; (Lev. xiii. 46,) and after death, he could not be buried with his ancestors. W.
Ver. 19. Forehead. So that it could not be concealed. According to the rigour of the law, such an offender was to be slain. Num. iii. 10. and xviii. 7. The leprosy was considered as equivalent, and is styled destruction, (v. 16,) and death. Isai. vi. 1. M. See 4 K. xv. 6.
Ver. 22. Prophet. Yet we find little concerning him in the prophecy of Isaias; so that the work has been lost, except what Esdras hath preserved. C.
Ver. 23. Leper. So much was the disease abhorred, (C.) as well as the king's late conduct. H.