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AND all the people of Juda took his son Ozias, who was sixteen years old, and made him king in the room of Amasias his father.

Ver. 1.  Ozias, called Azarias (4 K. xiv. 21.  C.) improperly.  H.


2 He built Ailath, and restored it to the dominion of Juda, after that the king slept with his fathers.

Ver. 2.  Juda, till the reign of Achaz.  4 K. xvi. 6.  It had revolted under Joram.  C.


The same as Elath. --- Ailath, to the east. See Num. xxxiii. 13.

3 Ozias was sixteen years old when he began to reign, and he reigned two and fifty years in Jerusalem: the name of his mother was Jechelia of Jerusalem.

4 And he did that which was right in the eyes of the Lord, according to all that Amasias his father had done.

Ver. 4.  Done.  And was successful, as long as he attended to the high priest.  Num. xxvii. 21.  W.

5 And he sought the Lord in the days of Zacharias that understood and saw God: and as long as he sought the Lord, he directed him in all things.

Ver. 5.  God, or who had the gift of intelligence and prophecy from God.  Heb. "who was intelligent in the visions of God."  Others have read birath, with the Sept. "in the fear;" or Chal. &c. "instructing in the fear of the Lord."  The Jews childishly understand Zacharias to mean the king himself, in the early part of his reign.  Others suppose the priest, who was slain by Joas, is designated.  Lyran.


--- But this was rather his son (T.  Cajet.  C.) and successor, as well as a prophet, who had therefore a more perfect knowledge of God; though none can comprehend his being.  H.

6 Moreover he went forth and fought against the Philistines, and broke down the wall of Geth, and the wall of Jabnia, and the wall of Azotus: and he built towns in Azotus, and among the Philistines.

Ver. 6.  In.  Prot. "about Ashdod."  Sept. "he built (or repaired) the cities of Azotus," to keep under the Philistines, who had revolted under Joram.  C. xxi. 16.


Azotus, or as the Heb. writes, Asdod, on the Mediterranean, was noted for the temple of Dagon, (1 K. v. 1,) which Jonathas destroyed. Joseph. xxii. 8. C.

7 And God helped him against the Philistines, and against the Arabians, that dwelt in Gurbaal, and against the Ammonites.

Ver. 7.  Gurbaal.  Gerera, (S. Jer. Trad.) or Gebal.  Ps. lxxxii. 8.  Sept. "the rock," or Petra, in Arabia, where Stephanus places the Gabalenes.


--- Ammonites.  Heb. mehunim.  Sept. "Mineans," (C. xx. 1.  H.) upon the Red Sea, (Steph.) or Mediterranean, (Pliny vi. 28,) or in Arabia Felix.  Strabo.  M.

8 And the ammonites gave gifts to Ozias: and his name was spread abroad even to the entrance of Egypt for his frequent victories.

Ver. 8.  Gifts.  Tribute.  C. xxvii. 5.  C.


--- Victories.  Prot. "the strengthened himself exceedingly."  H.

9 And Ozias built towers in Jerusalem over the gate of the corner, and over the gate of the valley, and the rest, in the same side of the wall, and fortified them.

Ver. 9.  Corner.  Repairing what Joas had demolished.  4 K. xiv. 13.  T.

10 And he built towers in the wilderness, and dug many cisterns, for he had much cattle both in the plains, and in the waste of the desert: he had also vineyards and dressers of vines in the mountains, and in Carmel: for he was a man that loved husbandry.

Ver. 10.  Wilderness, for the protection of shepherds.  4 K. xvii. 9.


--- Plains.  Heb. "valleys, and in the plains husbandmen, and vinedressers in the mountains, and in Carmel; for he loved the earth, or husbandry," like David.  1 Par. xvii. 25. &c.


--- Carmel, means, "the vine of God;" as both the mount in Juda, where Nabal resided, and that on the Mediterranean Sea, were famous for wine.  Ozias probably cultivated the former mountain.  C.


Carmel. Not where Elias dwelt, but a city and mountain 10 miles east of Eleutheropolis. Nabal rendered it famous by his imprudence, (1 K. xxv.) and Saul by a triumphal arch, 1 K. xv. 12. --- Carmel, so famous for the miracles of Elias, 3 K. xviii. 20. Josephus (Bel. ii. 17,) places it 120 stadia south of Ptolemais. This range of mountains extended northward through the tribes of Issachar and of Zabulon. Pliny (v. 17,) speaks of a promontory and of a town of this name. Here also the god Carmel was adored, having an altar, but no temple or image, as the ancients had decreed. Nec simulacrum Deo aut templum, (sic tradidere majores) ara tantum et reverentia. Tacit. Hist. ii. 78. --- Vespasian consulted the priest Basilides. Carmel means "the vineyard of the Lord," or the excellent vineyard, &c. It was so rich and beautiful as to become proverbial. The spouse compares the head of his beloved to Carmel. C. vii. 5. Isaias (xxxii. 15,) foretels that the deserts shall be equal to Carmel. It was covered with wood and fruit. S. Jerom in Isai. x. 18. Jer. iv. 26. The city, which was built upon this mountain, and which Pliny calls by the same name, was formerly styled Ecbatana. The oracle had denounced to Cambyses that he should die at Ecbatana, and he concluded that the city of Media was meant; but it was "that of Syria," says Herodotus, (iii. 64,) where he died.

11 And the army of his fighting men, that went out to war, was under the hand of Jehiel the scribe, and Maasias the doctor, end under the hand of Henanias, who was one of the king's captains.

Ver. 11.  Doctor.  Heb. shoter.  Sept. "judge."  Prot. "ruler."  H.


--- The term is commonly understood of one who executes the sentence of the judge.  But this employment does not suit a general, (C.) though such a one might well command.  It many denote any "officer."  H.

12 And the whole number of the chiefs by the families of valiant men were two thousand six hundred.
13 And the whole army under them three hundred and seven thousand five hundred: who were fit for war, and fought for the king against the enemy. 14 And Ozias prepared for them, that is, for the whole army, shields, and spears, and helmets, and coats of mail, and bows, and slings to cast stones. 15 And he made in Jerusalem engines of diverse kinds, which he placed in the towers, and in the corners of the walls, to shoot arrows, and great stones: and his name went forth far abroad, for the Lord helped him, and had strengthened him.

Ver. 15.  Engines.  They are here mentioned for the first time.  C.


--- For the.  Heb. "for he was wonderfully helped till he was established."  H.


--- He invented may things for the defence of his kingdom.  C.

16 But when he was made strong, his heart was lifted up to his destruction, and he neglected the Lord his God: and going into the temple of the Lord, he had a mind to burn incense upon the altar of incense. 17 And immediately Azarias the priest going in after him, and with him fourscore priests of the Lord, most valiant men,

Ver. 17.  Azarias.  The prophet, who had hitherto kept the king (H.) within bounds, was now no more, v. 5.  T.

18 Withstood the king and said: It doth not belong to thee, Ozias, to burn incense to the Lord, but to the priests, that is, to the sons of Aaron, who are consecrated for this ministry: go out of the sanctuary, do not despise: for this thing shall not be accounted to thy glory by the Lord God.

Ver. 18.  To thee.  For usurping spiritual authority, the king was opposed by the high priest; and God confirmed the sentence of the latter, by striking Ozias with the leprosy; on which account, the was not only cast out of the temple, but also lost his kingdom, being obliged to live apart; (Lev. xiii. 46,) and after death, he could not be buried with his ancestors.  W.


19 And Ozias was angry, and holding in his hand the censer to burn incense, threatened the priests. And presently there rose a leprosy in his forehead before the priests, in the house of the Lord at the altar of incense.

Ver. 19.  Forehead.  So that it could not be concealed.  According to the rigour of the law, such an offender was to be slain.  Num. iii. 10. and xviii. 7.  The leprosy was considered as equivalent, and is styled destruction, (v. 16,) and death.  Isai. vi. 1.  M.  See 4 K. xv. 6.

20 And Azarias the high priest, and all the rest of the priests looked upon him, and saw the leprosy in his forehead, and they made haste to thrust him out. Yea himself also being frightened, hasted to go out, because he had quickly felt the stroke of the Lord. 21 And Ozias the king was a leper unto the day of his death, and he dwelt in a house apart being full of the leprosy, for which he had been cast out of the house of the Lord. And Joatham his son governed the king's house, and judged the people of the land.


22 But the rest of the acts of Ozias first and last were written by Isaias the son of Amos, the prophet.

Ver. 22.  Prophet.  Yet we find little concerning him in the prophecy of Isaias; so that the work has been lost, except what Esdras hath preserved.  C.

23 And Ozias slept with his fathers, and they buried him in the field of the royal sepulchres, because he was a leper: and Joatham his son reigned in his stead.

Ver. 23.  Leper.  So much was the disease abhorred, (C.) as well as the king's late conduct.  H.


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