Gen Ex Lev Num Deut Josh Judg Ruth 1 Sam 2 Sam 1 Ki 2 Ki 1 Chron 2 Chron Ezra Neh Tob Jdt Esth Job Ps Prov Eccles Song Wis Sir Isa Jer Lam Bar Ezek Dan Hos Joel Amos Obad Jon Mic Nah Hab Zeph Hag Zech Mal 1 Mac 2 Mac
TO the brethren the Jews that are throughout Egypt, the brethren, the Jews that are in Jerusalem, and in the land of Judea, send health, and good peace.

Ver. 1.  Egypt.  They are invited to worship at Jerusalem.  M.

 

--- It seems these were most considered; perhaps being more numerous.  C.

 

--- They had also a schismatical temple.  H.


THE SECOND BOOK OF MACHABEES.

 

INTRODUCTION.

 

This Second Book of Machabees is not a continuation of the history contained in the First; nor does it come down so low as the First does, but relates many of the same facts more at large, and adds other remarkable particulars, omitted in the First Book, relating to the state of the Jews as well before as under the persecution of Antiochus.  The author, who is not the same with that of the First Book, has given (as we learn from C. ii. 20. &c.) a short abstract of what Jason, of Cyrene, had written in the five volumes, concerning Judas and his brethren.  He wrote in Greek, and begins with two letters, sent by the Jews of Jerusalem to their brethren in Egypt.  Ch.

 

--- Hence the whole book has been considered by some as an epistle.  Cotel. Can. Ap. p. 338.

 

--- But it is easy to distinguish the letter from the history, (C.) to which a preface is prefixed.  C. ii. 20.  Yet the Alex. copy has at the end, "A  letter concerning the acts of Judas Mach."  H.

 

--- The appendix of two epistles was added to the First Book by him who wrote the second, (W.) abridging the work of Jason.  H.




2 May God be gracious to you, and remember his covenant that he made with Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, his faithful servants: 3 And give you all a heart to worship him, and to do his will with a great heart, and a willing mind. 4 May he open your heart in his law, and in his commandments, and send you peace. 5 May he hear your prayers, and be reconciled unto you, and never forsake you in the evil time. 6 And now here we are praying for you. 7 When Demetrius reigned, in the year one hundred and sixty-nine, we Jews wrote to you, in the trouble, and violence, that came upon us in those years, after Jason withdrew himself from the holy land, and from the kingdom.

Ver. 7.  Demetrius Nicator.  The date refer to what goes before.

 

--- Nine.  This author dates from autumn, whereas the preceding begins the era of Seleucides, in spring, which accounts for the apparent contradictions.  C.

 

--- Trouble.  As they had written when in distress, so they now testify their joy and gratitude to God, begging their brethren to keep the dedication of the new altar.  W.

 

--- This first letter, sent during the heat of the persecution raised by Epiphanes, is lost.

 

--- Kingdom.  Judea was then tributary to Egypt; yet Jason applied to the Syrian monarch, and instead of waiting for the death of Onias III. wished to purchase his dignity, and to change the manners of the people.  Josephus gives contradictory accounts of these affairs, (C.) if he be really the author of 4 Mac.  H.


8 They burnt the gate, and shed innocent blood: then we prayed to the Lord, and were heard, and we offered sacrifices, and fine flour, and lighted the lamps, and set forth the loaves.

Ver. 8.  Flour, (mincha) including corn, &c.  After Judas had purified the temple, the usual sacrifices were offered.  C.


9 And now celebrate ye the days of Scenopegia in the month of Casleu.

Ver. 9.  Scenopegia; viz. the encenia, or feast of the dedication of the altar, called here scenopegia, or feast of the tabernacles, from being celebrated with the like solemnity.  Ch.  C. x. 6.

 

--- The real feast occurs in the month of Tisri.  C.


10 In the year one hundred and eighty-eight, the people that is at Jerusalem, and in Judea, and the senate, and Judas, to Aristobolus, the preceptor of king Ptolemee, who is of the stock of the anointed priests, and to the Jews that are in Egypt, health and welfare.

Ver. 10.  Eight.  Thus the preceding letter is dated, according to many, (M.) as there was no Judas or Aristobolus known at this time.  But Judas, the Essene prophet, (C. ii. 14.  W.) must have flourished about that period; (Jos. Ant. xiii. 19.  C.) and one Aristobolus wrote something in the Scripture for Philometor.  Clem. Strom. v.  Eus. Hist. ii. 17.

 

--- After Philadelphus, the kings of Egypt had commonly Jews among their preceptors.  Rupert, Vict. x. 15.

 

--- This person is supposed to have instructed Physcon.  C.




11 Having been delivered by God out of great dangers, we give him great thanks, forasmuch as we have been in war with such a king.

Ver. 11.  King.  Antiochus Sidetes, who began to make war upon the Jews, while Simon was yet alive; (1 Mac. xv. 39.) and afterwards besieged Jerusalem, under John Hircanus.  So that the Judas here mentioned (v. 10.) is not Judas Machabeus, who was dead long before the year 188 of the kingdom of the Greeks, for he died in the year 146 of that epoch; (see above, 1 Mac. c. ii, v. 70, also the note on chap. i, v. 2.) but either Judas, the eldest son of John Hircanus, or Judas the Essene, renowned for the gift of prophecy, who flourished about that time.  Ch.

 

--- Epiphanes may as well be meant.  The ancestors of those who wrote resisted him.


12 For he made numbers of men swarm out of Persia that have fought against us, and the holy city.

Ver. 12.  Persia.  This country is not specified in the Rom. and Alex. Sept.  Other copies have, "He God made them who attacked the holy city flee in swarms to Persia."  Syr. Vat.

 

--- the name of Persia now comprised all the dominions of Antiochus; Rupert understands Sidetes.  C.




13 For when the leader himself was in Persia, and with him a very great army, he fell in the temple of Nanea, being deceived by the counsel of the priests of Nanea.

Ver. 13.  Nanea.  A Persian goddess, which some have taken for Diana, others for Venus.  Ch.

 

--- Her temple at Ecbatana was renowned.  1 B. vi. 1.




14 For Antiochus, with his friends, came to the place as though he would marry her, and that he might receive great sums of money under the title of a dowry.

Ver. 14.  Dowry.  Thus the pagans played with religion.  M.

 

--- Anthony having espoused the Minerva of Athens, required the city to give him 1000 talents for her portion.  Dion. Seneca, suasov. 1.

 

--- Heliogabalus and Caligula pretended to marry the celestial Venus or the moon.  C.


15 And when the priests of Nanea had set it forth, and he with a small company had entered into the compass of the temple, they shut the temple, 16 When Antiochus was come in: and opening a secret entrance of the temple, they cast stones and slew the leader, and them that were with him, and hewed them in pieces, and cutting off their heads they threw them forth.

Ver. 16.  Slew.  Lit. "struck."  Gr. "stoned."  Yet Epiphanes escaped. (C. x. 9. and 1 B. vi.) having received some wounds.  But a fall from his chariot, and vexation, hastened his death.  H.

 

--- Some of his followers, who had advanced farther into the temple, perished.  C.


17 Blessed be God in all things, who hath delivered up the wicked. 18 Therefore whereas we purpose to keep the purification of the temple on the five and twentieth day of the month of Casleu, we thought it necessary to signify it to you: that you also may keep the day of Scenopegia, and the day of the fire, that was given when Nehemias offered sacrifice, after the temple and the altar was built.

Ver. 18.  Scenopegia.  The dedication was observed by the people bearing branches, in memory of their late forlorn condition on the mountains.  H.

 

--- See v. 2.

 

--- Fire.  This feast occurred in Tisri.  2 Esd. viii. 1. 14.  C.


19 For when our fathers were led into Persia, the priests that then were worshippers of God took privately the fire from the altar, and hid it in a valley where there was a deep pit without water, and there they kept it safe, so that the place was unknown to all men.

Ver. 19.  Persia.  Babylonia, called here Persia, from being afterwards a part of the Persian empire.  Ch.

 

--- Thus S. Chrys. (H. 6. in Mat.) says, the Jews were delivered from "the Persian captivity."  W.

 

--- All beyond the Euphrates was now called Persia.

 

--- Valley of Topheth, where (C.) it is still shewn.  Doubdan.

 

--- The miraculous pit was enclosed by Artaxerxes.  C. v. 33.  H.

 

--- Four miracles occurred respecting this fire.  v. 20. 22. 32.  W.




20 But when many years had passed, and it pleased God that Nehemias should be sent by the king of Persia, he sent some of the posterity of those priests that had hid it, to seek for the fire: and as they told us, they found no fire, but thick water.


21 Then he bade them draw it up, and bring it to him: and the priest Nehemias commanded the sacrifices that were laid on, to be sprinkled with the same water, both the wood, and the things that were laid upon it.

Ver. 21.  The priest.  Gr. "Nehemias ordered the priests to sprinkle with the water both," &c.  H.

 

--- Modern Jews say the sacred fire was not in the second temple.  But Gorionides and 4 Mac. admit this fact.  C.

 

--- Elias obtained fire upon his sacrifice nearly in the same manner.  H.


22 And when this was done, and the time came that the sun shone out, which before was in a cloud, there was a great fire kindled, so that all wondered. 23 And all the priests made prayer, while the sacrifice was consuming, Jonathan beginning, and the rest answering.

Ver. 23.  Jonathan, one of the chief priests; perhaps Joiada, Eliasib's son.  C.


24 And the prayer of Nehemias was after this manner: O Lord God, Creator of all things, dreadful and strong, just and merciful, who alone art the good king,
25 Who alone art gracious, who alone art just, and almighty, and eternal, who deliverest Israel from all evil, who didst choose the fathers and didst sanctify them: 26 Receive the sacrifice for all thy people Israel, and preserve thy own portion, and sanctify it. 27 Gather together our scattered people, deliver them that are slaves to the Gentiles, and look upon them that are despised and abhorred: that the Gentiles may know that thou art our God. 28 Punish them that oppress us, and that treat us injuriously with pride. 29 Establish thy people in thy holy place, as Moses hath spoken.

Ver. 29.  Spoken, promising  these favours.  Deut. xxx. 3.  H.



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30 And the priests sung hymns till the sacrifice was consumed. 31 And when the sacrifice was consumed, Nehemias commanded the water that was left to be poured out upon the great stones. 32 Which being done, there was kindled a flame from them: but it was consumed by the light that shined from the altar.

Ver. 32.  Altar.  This second flame came immediately from heaven, and overpowered that proceeding from the mud.  C.


33 And when this matter became public, it was told to the king of Persia, that in the place where the priests that were led away, had hid the fire, there appeared water, with which Nehemias and they that were with him had purified the sacrifices.


34 And the king considering, and diligently examining the matter, made a temple for it, that he might prove what had happened.

Ver. 34.  A temple.  That is, an enclosure or a wall round about the place where the fire was hid, to separate it from profane uses, to the end that it might be respected as a holy place.  Ch.

 

--- Such open enclosures are often styled temples.  C.

 

--- Gr. "But the  king enclosing it, made it sacred, (ieron) having examined the fact."  H.


35 And when he had proved it, he gave the priests many goods, and divers presents, and he took and distributed them to them with his own hand.

Ver. 35.  Hand.  The copies vary much.  La Haye.


36 And Nehemias called this place Nephthar, which is interpreted purification. But many call it Nephi.

Ver. 36.  Nephthar, or rather Necphar.  Grot.

 

--- Nephi.  Greek has the former word.  Rom. copy and Syr. Naphtai; may be derived from Chal. phetir, "pure, unmixed."  C.

 

--- Nephthar may signify "deliverance," as sacred things are rescued from common use.  W.


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