Ver. 1. Tribute. Aquila, and probably S. Jerom, translated, "cubit." Others suppose that Amma, or Meteg-ama, is some unknown place, which David wrested from the hands of the Philistines. It is hardly probable that the Israelites would have paid the latter tribute till the 20th year of his reign, (C.) or even till the 12th. Salien.
--- He might now force them to pay tribute. S. Jerom, &c. H.
--- Perhaps a letter may have been transposed, and instead of Meteg, we should read, "Geth, the mother," or metropolis, and its dependencies; (1 Par. xviii. 1.) or "he took Metec, (Num. xxxiii. 28.) and its mother," Geth, which reconciles the two passages. Chald. &c. "he deprived them of the advantage of the rivulet." Sept. "David took the separated" place, (Serar.) or the city of Geth. M.
Ver. 2. Earth, like criminals condemned to die. Theodoret.
--- Some of them he chose to spare, and made tributary, having levelled the strong places with the ground. Den. the Carthusian.
--- Sept. intimate that half were destroyed. C.
--- But the Heb. rather implies that the greatest part was saved, "a full cord to save alive;" (M.) unless there were three lots, and only one of them, larger indeed than the rest, spared. H.
--- Death, or slavery, were the portion of all who were taken in war. Grot. Jur. iii. 4. 20.
--- Lex nulla capto parcit aut pœnam impendit. Seneca.
--- Tribute. Heb. "brought gifts," which is a softer term. The Moabites were thus punished for former and, probably, for some recent offences. H.
Ver. 3. Adarezer. He is styled Adadezer in Heb. and this seems to have been his true name, though it is written Adarezer in Paral. Adad, or "the sun," was the chief idol of Syria, and the kings inserted the name with their own; as Benadad did. Josephus produces a fragment from Nicholaus of Damascus, in which he says that "Adad was king of Damascus, and of all Syria, except Phœnicia, and was defeated by David...His successors took his name, as the kings of Egypt did that of Ptolemy; and that the third in descent from this king, made an attack upon Samaria," and upon Achab. Ant. vii. 6.
--- Euphrates, which had been promised by God, Gen. xv. 18. Num. xxiv. 17. C.
--- Adadezer was probably the aggressor. Salien. M.
Ver. 4. A thousand. Protestants supply chariots, (H.) after the Sept. and 1 Par. (xviii. 4.) which have 7000 horsemen. See how we have attempted to reconcile these texts, 1 K. xiii. 5. Perhaps the numbers were expressed by single letters; and the Hebrew final n, (700) has been mistaken for z, (7000) both here and C. x. 18. Literis numeralibus non verbis antiquitus numeri concipiebantur. Scaliger, apud Walton prol.
--- "Will any other hypothesis so naturally solve this repeated difficulty?" Kennicott, Diss. on 1 Chron. xi. p. 96 and 463.
--- Kimchi thinks that the king's horse-guards are only specified here; and Salien supposes, that those who fought on chariots are also included in Chronicles, as they are often styled horsemen. Isai. xxi. 7. 9. M.
--- Houghed. Aquila, "destroyed." He rendered them unfit for war, as Josue had don, (Jos. xi. 6.) supposing that this was the import of the decree, forbidding many horses to be kept, Deut. xvii. 16.
--- Horses is not expressed in Heb. though the Prot. supply the word; as also, for. We should translate lit. "He left out of them 100 chariots;" (H.) as we read elsewhere, that Adarezer had 1000. M.
--- But this expression being unintelligible, no less than, "he houghed all the chariots," as the text stands at present in the original, may lead us to suspect that this verse has been inaccurately printed. Sept. "David paralyzed, (or rendered useless) all the chariots; and 100 chariots were reserved for himself out of them." Josephus says the rest of the 1000 chariots were burnt, 5000 horse slain, and 20,000 foot. H.
Ver. 5. Men. As Adarezer had brought upon himself the arms of David, perhaps by attempting to succour the Moabites, as he afterwards did the children of Ammon; (C. x.) so the king of Damascus was ruined by coming too late to his assistance. This king may be the Adad mentioned by Nicholaus. B. 4. Salien, A. 2993, the 14th year of David. See v. 1 and 3.
Ver. 7. Arms. "Quivers." Paral. and Syr. "Bucklers." Heb. and Chal. "Bracelets." Sept. C.
--- These bucklers might be for ornament, like those of Solomon. 3 K. x. 16. Salien.
--- They were taken afterwards by Sesac, king of Egypt. Joseph. vii. 6. H.
Ver. 8. Beroth, or Boroe. C.
--- Brass. All for the use of the temple. 1 Par. xviii. 8. The battle seems to have been fought near Beroth. Salien.
BerothBeroth was one of the towns of the Gabaonites. It is not certain that the inhabitants retired, in consequence of the persecution of Saul; but they went to the territory of Geth, or to another town of Benjamin. 2 Esd. xi. 33. C.
BeteBete (2Sam 8:8; 1Chron 18:8, has Thebath), possibly Tãyibeh, on the road from Hamath to Aleppo; or more prob. Tãyibeh, S. of Baalbek.
Ver. 9. Emath, or Emesa. Its king, Thou, being alarmed at the ambition of his neighbour Adarezer, (C.) was pleased with the victories of a prince from whom he thought he had less to fear, as the lived at a greater distance. H.
Ver. 10. Joram, called Adoram in Chron. C.
--- His, Joram's hand. M.
Ver. 11. Subdued. This was the custom of most conquerors. But no prince was ever more religious in this respect than David. He had an officer appointed over the sacred treasure, which contained the presents of Samuel, Saul, &c. 1 Par. xxvi. 26. 28.
AmalecThe people dwelt in tents, and removed from one place to another. So in Ethiopia there are properly no cities, the place where the prince encamps is deemed the capital. C.
Ver. 13. Name, or triumphal arch. Rabbins.
--- He acquired great fame. C. xvii. 9. 1 Mac. v. 57. M.
--- Syria, which is styled Aram in Heb. The Sept. have read Edom, or Idumea, as the two names have often been confounded, on account of the similarity of the letters. The following verse seems favourable to this reading, as well as the title of the Ps. lix.; and 1 Par. xviii. 12, says, Abisai...slew of the Edomites, in the valley of the salt-pits, 18,000. It is probable that David was present. This Idumea was on the east of the Dead Sea, and had Bosra for its capital. The salt-pits might be a great plain, about three miles south of Palmyra or Thadmor, which supplies almost all Syria with salt. Brun. C.
--- Othes think that the borders of the most salt lake of Sodom are denoted. M. See Gen. xiv. 10.
Ver. 14. Guards, or officers to administer justice in his name, after Joab had killed all the males, during six months. 3 K. xi. 15. C.
Ver. 15. All Israel, not only over Juda. M.
--- All the people who dwelt within the promised land, as far as the Euphrates, were forced to acknowledge his dominion. H.
--- People, settling their differences, &c. Kings formerly performed in person, the most important office of rendering justice; whence three kings of Crete are mentioned as judges in the realms below. C.
--- David acted with wisdom and justice. M.
Ver. 16. Sarvia, sister of David. 1 Par. ii. 16.
--- Army. Joab had acquired such influence over it, that his power was formidable even to David. He was a great warrior, and had contributed more than any other person to establish the throne of his uncle; but he was devoid of justice, and not much unlike Achilles.
Jura negat sibi nata, nihil non arrogat armis. Horace.
--- Recorder, or chancellor. Ch.
--- A commentariis. Aquila.
--- "Remembrancer," (H.) or the person who kept a journal of all memorable transactions. The kings of Persia employed people to keep such journals. 1 Esd. iv. 15. Est. vi. 1. Joseph. xi. 2.
--- The power of these writers was very great. Judg. v. 14. 4 K. xviii. 18. C.
--- Reference is often made to their "words of days." They had also to present petitions and memorials from the people. M.
Ver. 17. Achimelech is also called the father of Abiathar, as these two had both names indiscriminately. 1 K. xxi. 2. During the contest between the families of Saul and of David, two high priests were acknowledged, in their respective dominions. Sadoc was also permitted to officiate at Gabaon, during the reign of David; and, as Abiathar took part against Solomon, he was invested with the whole authority, and thus were accomplished the predictions made to Phinees and to Heli. Num. xxv. 12. 1 K. ii. 35. C.
--- Yet Salien considers Abiathar as the sole pontiff, from the time that his father was murdered by Saul. Sadoc, in the mean while, was his arch-priest or delegate, at Gabaon; (H.) though Abulensis and Josephus acknowledge both as high priests, (1 Par. xxiv. 3,) officiating by turns. M.
--- Scribe, or secretary. Ch. See Judg. v. 14.
--- Sept. "counsellor." He is called Susa, in Chronicles. H.
Ver. 18. The Cerethi and Phelithi. The king's guards. Ch.
--- They were Philistines, and had attached themselves to David while he was at Geth, continuing always faithful to him. We read of them in the Vulgate, under the reign of Joas. 4 K. xi. 19. David selected some out of all Israel, towards the end of his reign. 1 Par. xxvii.
--- Princes: literally, priests; (Cohen) so called, by a title of honour, and not for exercising the priestly function. Ch.
--- Sanctius translates, they "were like priests." The book of 1 Par. (xviii. 17,) explains, were chief about the king. Sept. "masters of the palace." David kept them near his person, and employed them as he thought proper: Bertram thinks, in embassies, till after the revolt of Absalom, when Ira took their place. C. xx. 26. C.
--- Prot. "David's sons were chief rulers." Chal. "grandees;" (H.) "ministers." Grot. D.