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AND David again gathered together all the chosen men of Israel, thirty thousand.

Ver. 1.  Again, after he had been anointed.  David consulted his officers, &c. (1 Par. xiii. 1.) and called a numerous assembly of the priests and people to meet him at Cariathiarim.


--- Thousand, in arms, to protect the rest, (C.) who might probably amount to 300,000.  H.


--- This number Capel and Grotius would substitute for the one here mentioned.  Some copies of the Sept. read 70,000.  In the former assembly, there were 340, or 359, (C.) or 60 thousand.  C. v. 1.  H.


2 And David arose and went, with all the people that were with him of the men of Juda to fetch the ark of God, upon which the name of the Lord of hosts is invoked, who sitteth over it upon the cherubims.

Ver. 2.  Juda.  But why are not the other tribes mentioned? and whither did they go?  We should probably translate, "from the city of Baalim, in Juda;" which is another name of Cariathiarim, as the Par. insinuate, v. 6.  See Jos. xv. 9, 60.


--- Invoked; or which is called "the ark of the Lord."


3 And they laid the ark of God upon a new cart: and took it out of the house of Abinadab, who was in Gabaa: and Oza, and Ahio, the sons of Abinadab, drove the new cart.

Ver. 3.  Cart, out of respect, as the Philistines had done, 1 K. vi. 7.  But God had ordered the Levites to carry it themselves, and the neglect here proved so dreadful; for which reason, David required the priests to attend when he removed the ark from the house of Obededom, 1 Par. xv. 12.


--- Gabaa means "the hill of Cariathiarim," where the ark had been in the house of Abinadab, from the time of its being restored back by the Philistines.  Ch.


--- Hunnius would multiply the places where the ark was fixed, to show, against Catholics, that the Church is not confined to one place; (Amama) as if Catholic did not maintain the universality of the Church!  H.

4 And when they had taken it out of the house of Abinadab, who was in Gabaa, Ahio having care of the ark of God went before the ark.


5 But David and all Israel played before the Lord on all manner of instruments made of wood, on harps and lutes and timbrels and cornets and cymbals.

Ver. 5.  Wood.  Heb. specifies "fir wood," of which the instruments were, perhaps, usually made.

6 And when they came to the floor of Nachon, Oza put forth his hand to the ark of God, and took hold of it: because the oxen kicked and made it lean aside.

Ver. 6.  Nachon.  1 Par. Chidon.  Heb. may be rendered, "prepared;" (Chal.) as they were almost arrived at the end (C.) of the procession.


--- His hand, is wanting in Heb.  Kennicott.


--- Kicked.  Prot. "shook it."  H.

7 And the indignation of the Lord was enkindled against Oza, and he struck him for his rashness: and he died there before the ark of God.

Ver. 7.  Rashness.  Heb. shal, means also "error, ignorance," &c.  Syr. and Arab. better, "because he put forth his hand." Kennicott.


--- Oza had touched the ark uncovered, (Serarius) shewing too little confidence in God, as if he could not have hindered it from falling; (Rabbins) or perhaps he was the advisor of the ark's being placed upon a cart, instead of the Levites' shoulders.  T.


--- It is not certain that he was a Levite; and the privilege belonged to the sons of Caath, who could claim this honour only after the ark had bee folded up with three covers.  Moreover, the priests seem to have been always selected to carry the ark, after they came into the promised land, v. 3.  1 K. iv. 4. &c.  It is hoped that the fault of Oza would be expiated by his sudden death, (C.) as his intention was laudable.  T.


--- But God would teach his ministers with what caution they were to treat sacred things, (C.) and how exactly all his injunctions were to be observed.  H.

8 And David was grieved because the Lord had struck Oza, and the name of that place was called: The striking of Oza, to this day.


9 And David was afraid of the Lord that day, saying: How shall the ark of the Lord come to me? 10 And he would not have the ark of the Lord brought in to himself into the city of David: but he caused it to be carried into the house of Obededom the Gethite.

Ver. 10.  Gethite, a native of Geth-remmon, a Levitical city; (Jos. xxi. 24,) or he might have been born at Geth; (C.) or his father might have resided there a long time, (Serar.  T.) unless he was there with David.  Salien.


--- He was a Levite, 1 Par. xv. 18. and xvi. 5. and xxvi. 4.  C.

11 And the ark of the Lord abode in the house of Obededom the Gethite three months: and the Lord blessed Obededom, and all his household. 12 And it was told king David, that the Lord had blessed Obededom, and all that he had, because of the ark of God. So David went, and brought away the ark of God out of the house of Obededom into the city of David with joy. And there were with David seven choirs, and calves for victims.

Ver. 12.  Choirs.  Or companies of musicians.  Ch.


--- This sentence is not found in Heb. nor in S. Jerom's version.  C.


--- The Vat. and Alex. Sept. have, "David brought the ark of the Lord from the house of Obeddara, into the city of David, with joy; (13) and there were seven choirs with him, taking up the ark, and the sacrifice, a calf and lamb; (14) and David played on tuneful organs before the Lord; and David had on a beautiful stole."  H.


13 And when they that carried the ark of the Lord had gone six paces, he sacrificed an ox and a ram:

Ver. 13.  Paces.  So altars of turf (Grot.) were erected at this distance from each other, on each side of the road.  The pagans have sometimes treated their emperors and deities with the like respect.  Sueton. in Otho and Calig.


--- Paris thus addresses Helena in Ovid's Heroic Epistles.

                        Ibis Dardanias ingens Regina per urbes,

                        Teque novam vulgus credet adesse Deam,

                        Quaque feres gressus, adolebunt cynnama flammæ,

                        Cœsaque sanguineam victima planget humum.


14 And David danced with all his might before the Lord: and David was girded with a linen ephod.

Ver. 14.  Ephod which ordinarily was the habit of priests.  But no law restrained others from using it, (C.) particularly on sacred occasions; as we often see laics in a surplice, when they have to sing Church music, &c.  M.


--- David had also on a cloak of byssus; (Paral.) and still Michol speaks as if he had been uncovered; because in this solemn ceremony, he was inspired to divest himself of his royal robes, and to act with a degree of enthusiasm; (H.) which would not have been otherwise becoming in a king.  David is considered by some of the fathers as a figure of the priests of the new law; as he ate the loaves of proposition, was dressed like priests, &c.  Sacerdos scitus erat David.  1 Iræn. iv.  S. Amb. v. in Luc. vi.  C.

15 And David and all the house of Israel brought the ark of the covenant of the Lord with joyful shouting, and with sound of trumpet.


16 And when the ark of the Lord was come into the city of David, Michol the daughter of Saul, looking out through a window, saw king David leaping and dancing before the Lord: and she despised him in her heart.

Ver. 16.  Leaping.  Sept. "beating" musical instruments...she counted him as nothing, &c.  H.


--- She rather partook of her father's disposition and pride.  M.

Michol Sees David Through A Window

Michol Sees David Through A Window

And when the ark of the Lord was come into the city of David, Michol the daughter of Saul, looking out through a window, saw king David leaping and dancing before the Lord: and she despised him in her heart.

17 And they brought the ark of the Lord, and set it in its place in the midst of the tabernacle, which David had pitched for it: and David offered holocausts, and peace offerings before the Lord.


18 And when he had made an end of offering holocausts and peace offerings, he blessed the people in the name of the Lord of hosts.

Ver. 18.  Blessed.  Wishing all sorts of happiness.  Only priests and kings perform this function publicly, 3 K. viii. 55.  Afterwards David went to his palace, to impart the same blessing to his family, and particularly to the women, who had not been present.  This is a vestige of the sacerdotal power, which masters of families formerly enjoyed.

19 And he distributed to all the multitude of Israel both men and women, to every one, a cake of bread, and a piece of roasted beef, and fine flour fried with oil: and all the people departed every one to his house.

Ver. 19.  Cake, made very thin, with a mixture of oil.


--- Beef, sufficient for a meal.


--- Oil.  This was much esteemed in those days.  Many would translate the Heb. "a bottle of wine."

20 And David returned to bless his own house: and Michol the daughter of Saul coming out to meet David, said: How glorious was the king of Israel to day, uncovering himself before the handmaids of his servants, and was naked, as if one of the buffoons should be naked.

Ver. 20.  Fellows.  Sept. "dancers."  Michol exaggerates, as David had been guilty of no indiscretion, v. 14.  C.


--- S. Gregory (Mor. xxvii. 27,) styles her "insane."  Yet Abulensis does not sufficiently approve of David's conduct.  M.

21 And David said to Michol: Before the Lord, who chose me rather than thy father, and than all his house, and commanded me to be ruler over the people of the Lord in Israel, 22 I will both play and make myself meaner than I have done: and I will be little in my own eyes: and with the handmaid of whom thou speakest, I shall appear more glorious.

Ver. 22.  Eyes.  Humility in a king is truly noble.


--- Glorious.  He accepts the compliment of Michol, though she had spoken ironically.  H.

23 Therefore Michol the daughter of Saul had no child to the day of her death.

Ver. 23.  Death.  Thus was she punished.  The five sons who are attributed to her (C. xxi. 8.) were only adopted; or perhaps we ought to read Merob, in stead of Michol; (C.) as the latter had been connected with Phaltiel, and not with Adriel, who was the former's husband.  H.

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