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THEN all the tribes of Israel came to David in Hebron, saying: Behold we are thy bone and thy flesh.

Ver. 1.  Tribes.  Thus were God's promises sweetly fulfilled, and David obtained the quiet dominion over all Israel, excepting perhaps a few of the tribe of Benjamin, according to the Vulgate.  1 Par. xii. 29.  An army of 340,822 was collected on this occasion; and David signalized the commencement of his reign, by the taking of Jerusalem.  C.


--- The tribe is Issachar is not specified in the text; but Josephus asserts, that 20,000 of them assembled; so that the army would amount to 359 (Salien) or 60 thousand, besides the 822.  C.


--- These might be considered as deputies of all the rest of their brethren, 1 Par. xii. 38.  They were abundantly supplied with all necessities.  Salien.


--- Flesh, of the same nation, as Moses had specified.  Deut. xvii. 15.  C.


--- They now relinquish all the seeds of division, which had before hindered them from joining with their brethren of Juda.  Kennicott discovers several important alterations, by comparing this history with 1 Chron. xi.  Dissert. i.  H.


2 Moreover yesterday also and the day before, when Saul was king over us, thou wast he that did lead out and bring in Israel: and the Lord said to thee: Thou shalt feed my people Israel, and thou shalt be prince over Israel.

Ver. 2.  Lead out to battle.  His experience in war was a great recommendation.  H.


--- Feed, as a shepherd, under which character he is first represented.  H.


--- Other rulers were afterwards honoured with the same title, (C.) particularly the governors of the Church.  Act. xx. &c.  David's name is written without i, in the books before the captivity; whence Kennicott would infer, that the canticles were perhaps not the work of Solomon, as the i occurs there; Duid for Dud.  H.

3 The ancients also of Israel came to the king to Hebron, and king David made a league with them in Hebron before the Lord: and they anointed David to be king over Israel.

Ver. 3.  Ancients; princes of the tribes, and officers, (C.) with all the chief magistrates.  H.


--- The high priest, Abiathar, received the oaths of allegiance from the people, and of the king, who promised to govern according to the laws of God.  The ark was probably present, and innumerable sacrifices offered on this solemn occasion, as was usual.  1 Par. xii. 26.  Hebron continued to be a place of sacrifices.  C. xv. 7.  C.


--- David had erected here a temporary altar and tabernacle, where Abiathar officiated in his pontifical robes, as it was not safe for the people to go into the dominions of Isboseth, either to Gabaon or to Cariathiarim.  Tostat.


--- Israel, acknowledging the right which David had to the throne, by God's appointment.  H.  W.


4 David was thirty years old when he began to reign, and he reigned forty years.

Ver. 4.  Forty, a round number, as another half year is specified below; (C.) or Solomon might be crowned at the expiration of the 40th year.  D.


5 In Hebron he reigned over Juda seven years and six months: and in Jerusalem he reigned three and thirty years over all Israel and Juda.

6 And the king and all the men that were with him went to Jerusalem to the Jebusites the inhabitants of the land: and they said to David: Thou shalt not come in hither unless thou take away the blind and the lame that say: David shall not come in hither.

Ver. 6.  Land.  This was the only canton which the infidels still retained, as they had still possession of the citadel of Jebus, (C.) though the Israelites had been in the country above 400 years.  Ken.


--- Nothing could reflect greater glory on the beginning of David's reign, than the seizing of this place, (C.) which was deemed so impregnable, that the Jebusites thought the blind and the lame were sufficient to defend it.  H.


--- They placed some upon the walls, (M.) "despising him, on account of the strength of their walls."


7 But David took the castle of Sion, the same is the city of David.

Ver. 7.  Castle: "the lower city," (Josephus) spread over Mount Sion.

8 For David had offered that day a reward to whosoever should strike the Jebusites and get up to the gutters of the tops of the houses, and take away the blind and the lame that hated the soul of David: therefore it is said in the proverb: The blind and the lame shall not come into the temple.

Ver. 8.  Gutters.  Heb. Tsinnor, "through (Nodius) the subterraneous passage," (leading to the tops of the houses.)  Hugo of Vienna.


--- Thus Babylon was taken by Cyrus, who passed through the channel of the Euphrates, the waters of which he had let out; though the inhabitants had derided his attempt to take the city by siege, as the men of Jebus do here.  Polybius says, "Rabatamana, a city of Arabia, could not be taken, till one of the prisoners shewed the besiegers a subterraneous passage, (uponomon) through which the besieged came down for water."  Of the same nature were the gutters here spoken of.  Ken.


--- "The king promised to give the command of the army to the man who would pass through the cavities (faraggon) below, and take the citadel."  Josephus.


--- This reward is expressly mentioned in 1 Paral. xi. 6, with the person who obtained it; (S. Jer. Trad.) and it seems, after David, this ought to be inserted, "shall be the head and captain.  And Joab, the son of Sarvia, went up first, and was made the general."  H.


---Hatred.  Heb. "that are hated by David's soul."  Cajetan supposes that the Jebusites in the citadel, are thus distinguished from those who dwelt peaceably in the lower town, with the Israelites.  C.


--- Proverb.  Prot. insert, "He shall be head and captain.  Wherefore they said, the blind...into the house."  What is translated temple, may denote also, "the house" of David, or "the place" where this provocation had been given.  H.


--- Idols shall never be adored in the true Church.  W.


--- Some think that the blind and the lame were excluded from the temple, or from David's palace.  But we find that they had free access to the temple; (Mat. xxi. 14.  Acts iii. 2.) and Miphiboseth ate at David's table, though he was lame.  If the Jebusites be designated, they were already excluded from the temple, like other infidels of Chanaan.  C.


--- Josephus (vii. 3.) insinuates, that "David drove them from Jerusalem," though we read of Areuna residing there.  C. xxiv.16.  But he might be a proselyte before, and  not dwell in the fort.  The expression seems however to be proverbial, to signify any very difficult enterprize, which proves successful, and contrary to expectation.  H.


--- The Jebusites were thus derided (Sanctius) in their turn.  T.


--- Whether Joab took this strong place by a subterraneous passage, (H.) or scaled the walls, and so got to the top, whence the water falls, as from a gutter; (C.) it is certain that he displayed the utmost valour, and thus obtained the confirmation of his authority, which David would perhaps have willingly taken from him, (Salien) if another had offered himself, and performed this hazardous enterprize.  H.


--- He made a fair offer to all Israel, as they probably expected.  Kennicott.

9 And David dwelt in the castle, and called it, The city of David: and built round about from Mello and inwards.

Ver. 9.  Inwards.  He built or repaired the higher "city of David," beginning at Mello, to "fill up" the valley, which Solomon finished, and adorned with a palace.  3 K. ix. 15.  4 K. xii. 20.  The place is probably called Asaramel.  1 Mac. xiv. 27.  C.


--- Sept. and Josephus generally understand Mello to designate the citadel of Sion, or "a complete fortification," to defend the city.  Instead of inwards, the Sept. have, "and  his house."  But ubithe means, "and to the house," temple, or fort, whence he began the enclosure, so as to make a complete communication.  Ken.


--- This city became "the most famous in all the East."  Plin. v. 14.


--- "Walls, built in a crooked manner, according to the rules of art, enclosing two hills, immensely high."  Tacit. Hist. v.


--- These hills were multiplied, on account of their different summits, so that Josephus speaks of five hills.  The palace of David stood on Sion, the temple on Moria, which was a part of it still more elevated, towards the east.  The other hill is often called Acra, by Josephus, and lay southward of Sion.  Here the ancient town of Jebus was built.  The Machabees took in an adjoining eminence.  Joseph. Bel. vi. 6.


--- Bethsetta, or the new city, was afterwards enclosed.  Herod adorned the city with may superb monuments, both of a public and of a private nature.  C.


--- We read of ten gates, and of four towers, belonging to this city.  It was not well supplied with water, and what it had was brackish.  The walls seem never to have exceeded four and a half miles; now they are only three, and include Mount Calvary, which was formerly no part of the city.  Button says a valley run from west to east, between the two hills of Zion on the south, and Acra on the north; which contradicts the former statement.  H.


--- Villalpand supposes that the citadel was nine and a half stadia, and all the city thirty-five stadia in circumference, eight of which make an Italian mile.  M.


10 And he went on prospering and growing up, and the Lord God of hosts was with him. 11 And Hiram the king of Tyre sent messengers to David, and cedar trees, and carpenters, and masons for walls: and they built a house for David.

Ver. 11.  Hiram was a magnificent prince, who kept up a correspondence with Solomon.  He greatly adorned the city of Tyre.  See Josep. c. Ap. 1.


12 And David knew that the Lord bad confirmed him king over Israel, and that he had exalted his kingdom over his people Israel.

Ver. 12.  Over.  Heb. "for."  The king is bound to promote the welfare of his people.  C.


--- But the same word means "over," as the Prot. allow.  H.


--- Success constantly attending David, was an earnest that the Lord had not rejected him.  C.


13 And David took more concubines and wives of Jerusalem, after he was come from Hebron: and there were born to David other sons also and daughters:

Ver. 13.  David took more concubines and wives of Jerusalem.  Not harlots, but wives of an inferior condition: for such in Scripture are styled concubines.  Ch.


--- He had in all eight wives, and ten whom he married with less solemnity.  He might desire to attach the principal families of the nation, as well as some foreign princes, to his interests.  Moses forbids a  king to have too many wives.  Deut. xvii. 17.  C.


--- But David is never blamed for the transgression of this precept.  See C. iii. 1.  M.


14 And these are the names of them, that were born to him in Jerusalem, Samua, and Sobab, and Nathan, and Solomon,


15 And Jebahar, and Elisua, and Nepheg, 16 And Japhia, and Elisama, and Elioda, and Eliphaleth.

Ver. 16.  Eliphaleth.  Sept. reckon twenty instead of eleven.  C.


--- The Vat. copy has twenty-four, as some of the names have been read differently, so as to make two persons, and thus frequently a double translation occurs in the Sept. the one being taken either from Aquila, &c. or from some more early version, of which we know not the author.  Grabe.  Kennicott, Diss. ii. p. 404.

17 And the Philistines heard that they had anointed David to be king over Israel: and they all came to seek David: and when David heard of it, he went down to a strong hold.

Ver. 17.  Seek, or attack David.  He went out to meet them.  Par.  But receiving an order not to join battle as yet, retired to Odollam, (C. xxiii. 13.  1 Par. xi. 15.  C.) a strong hold, with which he was perfectly acquainted.  H.


18 And the Philistines coming spread themselves in the valley of Raphaim.

Ver. 18.  Raphaim.  Sept. "of Titans," C. or giants who had dwelt there.  M.


--- It lay to the west (M.) or south of Jerusalem, and extended as far as Bethlehem.  David was still more to the south, (C.) so that he seemed to be cut off from his capital.  But it was secure enough.  H.


--- On this occasion, three of his brave men went through the midst of the enemies' ranks, to fetch water from the spring of Bethlehem.  C. xxiii. 16.


19 And David consulted the Lord, saying: Shall I go up to the Philistines? and wilt thou deliver them into my hand? And the Lord said to David: Go up, for I will surely deliver the Philistines into thy hand. 20 And David came to Baal Pharisim: and defeated them there, and he said: The Lord hath divided my enemies before me, as waters are divided. Therefore the name of the place was called Baal Pharisim.

Ver. 20.  Baal-Pharisim, "the master of the divisions or god of the scattered;" as the place was afterwards called, in memory that David became master, and put the enemy to flight, taking their idols, (C.) which were unable to save themselves.  H.



Baal (1Chron 4:33), probably identical with Baalath Beer Ramath (Josh 19:8; Simeon), poss. Biâr Mãyîn, or Tell el-Lekiyeh, N. of Bersabee. Baal, or Ballath. Jos. xix. 1.

Baal Pharisim

Baal-Pharisim, "the master of the divisions or god of the scattered;" as the place was afterwards called, in memory that David became master, and put the enemy to flight, taking their idols, (C.) which were unable to save themselves. H. --- (2Sam 5:20), in the neighbourhood of the Valley of Raphaim, S. of Jerusalem.

21 And they left there their idols: which David and his men took away.

Ver. 21.  Away, and burnt.  Par.  The ark had on the contrary proved fatal to the gods, and to the people of the Philistines; who might hence perceive the difference there was between the true God and their false gods.

22 And the Philistines came up again and spread themselves in the valley of Raphaim.

23 And David consulted the Lord: Shall I go up against the Philistines, and wilt thou deliver them into my hands? He answered: Go not up against them, but fetch a compass behind them, and thou shalt come upon them over against the pear trees.

Ver. 23.  Shall, &c.  This consultation is omitted in Heb.  C.


--- Prot. "and when David inquired of the Lord, he said, "Thou shalt not," &c.  Sept. "and David," &c.  H.


--- Trees.  Heb. Becaim.  Sept. "of lamentation."  Judg. ii. 1.

24 And when thou shalt hear the sound of one going in the tops of the pear trees, then shalt thou join battle: for then will the Lord go out before thy face to strike the army of the Philistines.

Ver. 24.  Trees.  Many translate the Heb. "mulberry trees," or leave the original word, becaim, "the heights of Bochim."  Sept. seem to give a double version: "the sound of the agitation (or Alex. "shutting up," (H.) as with an army on all sides) of the woods, of the lamentation."  M.


--- Theodoret supposes, "the woods put in motion, without any wind."  It is thought that an army of spirits went before David, and threw the enemy into a panic.  Storms of hail, &c. seem to have also cut them down.  Isai. xxviii. 21.  Ps. xvii. 9.

25 And David did as the Lord had commanded him, and he smote the Philistines from Gabaa until thou come to Gezer.

Ver. 25.  Gabaa, which some would understand of "the hills" of Bochim.  C.


--- But in Sept. (Alex.) and in Par. we read Gabaon, a city near the birth-place of Saul.  H.


--- David pursued the enemy by Gabaa, and took from them all the cities of which they had taken possession, after their victory.  C.


--- Gezer was in the tribe of Ephraim, (M.) on the confines of the Philistines.  C.

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